In this article, we propose a novel bilateral tele- operation architecture for a multiarms system based on the two-layer approach. Exploiting the concept of shared energy tank, a passivity layer guarantees the passivity of the overall architecture with respect to destabilizing factors such as time delays in the communication channel. The desired behavior can then be freely designed in the transparency layer. The formulation of the energy tank is first revised, allowing a more efficient use of energy, and then extended, allowing explicitly the use of both admittance and impedance causality robots. A novel framework capable of combining the use of teleoperated and autonomous robots is proposed. The architecture has been tested and validated on a multiarms system in a realistic surgical scenario with the da Vinci research kit (dVRK) and an autonomous arm holding the endoscope.
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