Human pose estimation (HPE) through deep learning-based software applications is a trend topic for markerless motion analysis. Thanks to the accuracy of the state-of-the-art technology, HPE could enable gait analysis in the telemedicine practice. On the other hand, delivering such a service at a distance requires the system to satisfy multiple and different constraints like accuracy, portability, real-time, and privacy compliance at the same time. Existing solutions either guarantee accuracy and real-time (e.g., the widespread OpenPose software on well-equipped computing platforms) or portability and data privacy (e.g., light convolutional neural networks on mobile phones). We propose a portable and low-cost platform that implements real-time and accurate 3D HPE through an embedded software on a low-power off-the-shelf computing device that guarantees privacy by default and by design. We present an extended evaluation of both accuracy and performance of the proposed solution conducted with a marker-based motion capture system (i.e., Vicon) as ground truth. The results show that the platform achieves real-time performance and high-accuracy with a deviation below the error tolerance when compared to the marker-based motion capture system (e.g., less than an error of 5◦ on the estimated knee flexion difference on the entire gait cycle and correlation 0.91 < ρ < 0.99). We provide a proof-of-concept study, showing that such portable technology, considering the limited discrepancies with respect to the marker-based motion capture system and its working tolerance, could be used for gait analysis at a distance without leading to different clinical interpretation.

Enabling gait analysis in the telemedicine practice through portable and accurate 3D human pose estimation

Enrico Martini;Michele Boldo;Stefano Aldegheri;Nicola Vale';Mirko Filippetti;Nicola Smania;Matteo Bertucco;Alessandro Picelli;Nicola Bombieri
2022

Abstract

Human pose estimation (HPE) through deep learning-based software applications is a trend topic for markerless motion analysis. Thanks to the accuracy of the state-of-the-art technology, HPE could enable gait analysis in the telemedicine practice. On the other hand, delivering such a service at a distance requires the system to satisfy multiple and different constraints like accuracy, portability, real-time, and privacy compliance at the same time. Existing solutions either guarantee accuracy and real-time (e.g., the widespread OpenPose software on well-equipped computing platforms) or portability and data privacy (e.g., light convolutional neural networks on mobile phones). We propose a portable and low-cost platform that implements real-time and accurate 3D HPE through an embedded software on a low-power off-the-shelf computing device that guarantees privacy by default and by design. We present an extended evaluation of both accuracy and performance of the proposed solution conducted with a marker-based motion capture system (i.e., Vicon) as ground truth. The results show that the platform achieves real-time performance and high-accuracy with a deviation below the error tolerance when compared to the marker-based motion capture system (e.g., less than an error of 5◦ on the estimated knee flexion difference on the entire gait cycle and correlation 0.91 < ρ < 0.99). We provide a proof-of-concept study, showing that such portable technology, considering the limited discrepancies with respect to the marker-based motion capture system and its working tolerance, could be used for gait analysis at a distance without leading to different clinical interpretation.
Marker-less gait analysis
3D Human pose estimation
Edge computing
Telemedicine
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1070651
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