The transactional theory of stress posits that job demands may be appraised as irrelevant to, challenging, or hindering one’s personal growth and well-being (primary appraisal). Moreover, people also make a judgement regarding whether they have the resources to cope with the stressful situation (secondary appraisal). Psychological contract breach theory has been used to explain the mediating role of job control (secondary appraisal) in the job insecurity-outcomes relationship. Specifically, job insecurity is expected to lead to reduced perceptions of job control, which in turn are associated with higher burnout and less engagement. Building on this, we further propose that the job insecurity-job control relationship may be moderated by the employee’s primary appraisal, resulting in a moderated-mediation model. Specifically, regarding the job insecurity-job control relationship, we expect to find that it would be weaker for employees that perceive high challenge levels compared to those perceiving lower levels of challenge appraisal. In a similar way, we expect that the same relationship would be stronger for employees perceiving high levels of hindrance appraisal compared to those perceiving lower levels of hindrance appraisal. To test these hypotheses, using a sample of 342 Italian employees in several healthcare organizations, we measured job insecurity, job control, job insecurity appraisals (challenge and hindrance), burnout, and work engagement. Our results showed that the job control mediation role in the job insecurity-burnout relationship differs significantly across the levels of challenge appraisal. Specifically, the total indirect effect 193 of job insecurity on burnout via job control at low and moderate challenge appraisal was significantly different from zero (b = .09; 95% CI [0.01, 0.25] and b = .06; 95% CI [0.01, 0.21], respectively). However, total indirect effect of job insecurity on burnout via job control was nonsignificant at high challenge (b = .00; 95% CI [-0.03, 0.17]). Similarly, the job control mediation role in the job insecurity-work engagement relationship also differs significantly across the levels of challenge appraisal. In particular, the total indirect effect of job insecurity on work engagement via job control was significantly different from zero at low and medium challenge levels (b = -.05; 95% CI [-0.25, -0.01] and b = -.10; 95% CI [-0.21, 0.00], respectively). The total indirect effect of job insecurity on work engagement via job control at high challenge was nonsignificant (b = .00; 95% CI [-0.01, 0.03]). However, the mediation effect of job control did not vary across hindrance appraisal levels for any of the outcomes. This contribution showed the merits of including both primary and secondary appraisals in studying the relationship between job insecurity and two outcomes. It follows that interventions aimed at increasing job control to face job insecurity may not be beneficial to employees that have a higher challenge appraisal. Moreover, challenge appraisal does not seem to lead to positive outcomes when employees experience job insecurity, rather it takes away the negative association. Future research should investigate other intervention strategies that may be more beneficial to employees that perceive high challenge appraisal.
|Titolo:||Challenge, hindrance, and control: An analysis of primary and secondary appraisals’ role in the job insecurity-outcomes relationships|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||04.02 Abstract in Atti di convegno|