This study was conducted reviewing clinical records of 14 patients affected by nocardiosis over 5 years in a tertiary care hospital. Nocardia abscessus was responsible for one third of infections, deviating significantly from the results reported by other epidemiological investigations and highlighting the key role of molecular identification tests. Indeed, a precise identification of species is crucial for the determination of antibiotic sensitivity patterns and, consequently, for the choice of antibiotic treatment. Noteworthy, 40% of isolates of N. abscessus (formerly N. asteroides complex) showed resistance to carbapenems, which are usually recommended for empirical therapy.
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