Polyamines(PAs)areubiquitoussubstancesconsideredtobebioregulatorsofnumerouscellfunctions;theytakepartincellgrowth,division,anddifferentiation.Thesebiogenicaminesarealsoinvolvedintissuerepairandinintracellularsignaling;infact,becauseoftheirpolycationiccharacter,theyinteracttoalargeextentwithmembranephospho-lipidsandmayplayanimportantroleintheregulationofmembrane-linkedenzymes.Theintracellularpolyaminecontentderivesfromthesimultaneousregulationofthesynthesis,catabolism,uptake,andeliminationofthepolyamines;furthermore,PAsarepresentinallcelltypesatdifferentconcentrations,butthehighestlevelsarefoundinrapid-turnovertissues.Inadditiontospermidine,spermine,andputrescine,alsoagmatine(AGM),deriv-ingfromarginineandidentifiedinmammalsinthe1990s,isapolyamineandseveralstudieshavereporteditspotentiallypositiveroleintheproductionofsecretagogues,andinneuronal,vascular,metabolic,andtherapeuticfunctions.Becauseofthelowargininedecarboxylase(ADC)activityinmammalians,theamountsofAGMfoundintheirtissuescanbeonlyminimallyascribedtoanendogenousdenovosynthesisbyADC,whileasub-stantialquantityofAGMmaybeofdietaryorigin.Severalfoodproductscontainonlysmallamountsofpolyamines,whilehigherconcentrationscanbefoundinfermentedfoods.PAscouldalsobeconsideredasindicatorsoffreshnessinfishandmeatproducts;asthesemoietiesareproducedduringfoodstorage,itwouldseemtoconfirmthemainroleofmicroorganismsintheirsynthesis.Inparticular,highlevelsofAGMarepresentinalcoholicbeverages,suchaswine,beer,sake,whichwouldseemtoconfirmtheroleofyeastsinAGMproduction.Althoughmanybiologicalfunctionshavebeenattributedtopolyamines,highlevelsofthesecompoundsinfoodstuffscanhavetoxicologicaleffects;however,nosafelevelfortheintakeofpolyaminesinadiethasyetbeenestablished.InthispaperthepresenceofAGMindifferentfoodstuffsisdiscussed,alsotakingintoaccountthevariousfactorsaffectingitspresenceandconcentration.

Focused Review: Agmatine in fermented foods

Favati, Fabio
2012

Abstract

Polyamines(PAs)areubiquitoussubstancesconsideredtobebioregulatorsofnumerouscellfunctions;theytakepartincellgrowth,division,anddifferentiation.Thesebiogenicaminesarealsoinvolvedintissuerepairandinintracellularsignaling;infact,becauseoftheirpolycationiccharacter,theyinteracttoalargeextentwithmembranephospho-lipidsandmayplayanimportantroleintheregulationofmembrane-linkedenzymes.Theintracellularpolyaminecontentderivesfromthesimultaneousregulationofthesynthesis,catabolism,uptake,andeliminationofthepolyamines;furthermore,PAsarepresentinallcelltypesatdifferentconcentrations,butthehighestlevelsarefoundinrapid-turnovertissues.Inadditiontospermidine,spermine,andputrescine,alsoagmatine(AGM),deriv-ingfromarginineandidentifiedinmammalsinthe1990s,isapolyamineandseveralstudieshavereporteditspotentiallypositiveroleintheproductionofsecretagogues,andinneuronal,vascular,metabolic,andtherapeuticfunctions.Becauseofthelowargininedecarboxylase(ADC)activityinmammalians,theamountsofAGMfoundintheirtissuescanbeonlyminimallyascribedtoanendogenousdenovosynthesisbyADC,whileasub-stantialquantityofAGMmaybeofdietaryorigin.Severalfoodproductscontainonlysmallamountsofpolyamines,whilehigherconcentrationscanbefoundinfermentedfoods.PAscouldalsobeconsideredasindicatorsoffreshnessinfishandmeatproducts;asthesemoietiesareproducedduringfoodstorage,itwouldseemtoconfirmthemainroleofmicroorganismsintheirsynthesis.Inparticular,highlevelsofAGMarepresentinalcoholicbeverages,suchaswine,beer,sake,whichwouldseemtoconfirmtheroleofyeastsinAGMproduction.Althoughmanybiologicalfunctionshavebeenattributedtopolyamines,highlevelsofthesecompoundsinfoodstuffscanhavetoxicologicaleffects;however,nosafelevelfortheintakeofpolyaminesinadiethasyetbeenestablished.InthispaperthepresenceofAGMindifferentfoodstuffsisdiscussed,alsotakingintoaccountthevariousfactorsaffectingitspresenceandconcentration.
agmatine; biogenic amines; fermented foods; polyamines
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/554826
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