The removal and fate of toxic and hazardous compounds from wastewaters is more and more of scientific and practical interest, even further to the recent environmental regulations. In this framework, the knowledge of the actual maximal treatment performances achievable by the best available tecniques (BATs) is necessary. This presentation deals with the occurrence and removal of a number of non-conventional pollutants (i.e. heavy metals, PAHs, dioxines, PCBs, cianides, etc) from urban and industrial wastewatetrs. In particular, the membrane bioreactors were widely recognised as offering a key option for enhanced wastewater treatment or reuse, but a number of early "myths" about their capacity to enhance the removal of nonconventional pollutants are nowadays under discussion. This presentation focus on the long term operation of membrane bioreactors and discuss the effect of the operating parameters on non-conventional pollutants.
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