The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) plays an important role in the maintenance of genomic stability. To date few studies have been performed on hMSH2 and hMLH1 expression and melanoma of the head and neck region. A study of two cases revealed no mutations of the mismatch repair genes hMSH2 and hMLH1.To verify the possibility of implication of hMSH2 and hMLH1 alterations in melanocytic cancerogenesis, the authors examined the protein expression pattern of hMSH2 and hMLH1 by immunohistochemistry in 9 paraffin-embedded oral melanoma.One case (11\%) showed nuclear positivity for hMSH2, 3 cases (33\%) showed cytoplasmic positivity, and five cases (55\%) showed no staining in the tumoral cells, even if normal squamous epithelium available in this section showed a nuclear positivity. Four cases (44\%) showed no hMLH1 staining in the tumoral cells, even if normal squamous epithelium available in this section showed a nuclear positivity. Two cases (22\%) showed nuclear positivity, and three cases (33\%) showed cytoplasmic positivity.The analysis of mismatch repair genes can be a new molecular diagnostic tools for the detection of patients at high risk of developing melanoma and other neoplasia, or metastasis and recurrences.
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