The objective of this clinical trial was the analysis of 2 methods for engineering of autologous bone grafts for maxillary sinus augmentation with secondary implant placement. Group 1 (8 patients, 12 sinuses): cells of mandibular periosteum were cultured in a good manufacturing practice laboratory (2 weeks) with autologous serum and then transferred onto a collagen matrix. After another week, these composites were transplanted into the sinuses. In group 2A (2 patients, 3 sinuses), cells of maxillary bone were cultivated with autologous serum for 2 weeks, seeded onto natural bone mineral (NBM, diameter [O] 8 mm) blocks, and cultivated for another 1.5 months. These composites were transplanted into the sinuses. Group 2B (control, 3 patients, 5 sinuses) received NBM blocks alone. In the course of implant placement 6 (group 1) and 8 (group 2) months later, core biopsy were taken. Clinical follow-up period was 1 to 2.5 years in group 1 and approximately 7 years in groups 2A and 2B. New vital bone was found in all cases at median densities of 38% (n = 12) in group 1, 32% in group 2A (n = 3), and 25% in group 2B (n = 5). Differences between group 1 and 2B as well as 2A and 2B were statistically significant (p = 0.025). No adverse effects were seen. All methods described were capable of creating new bone tissue with sufficient stability for successful implant placement.
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