Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is an autosomal recessive disease of infantile onset, characterised by progressive clinical course, multi-systemic involvement and widespread presence of dystrophic axons in both the central and peripheral nervous system. Clinical, neurophysiological and neuroradiological criteria of the disease are established, but the occurrence of atypical cases is known. Since the availability of molecular markers is still lacking, diagnostic evidence in vivo is provided by the presence of specific axonal lesions distally in the peripheral nerve fibres. In two children who had a protracted course of the disease with dystonic postures of the upper limbs and showed dystrophic axons following sural nerve biopsy, bilateral pallidal hypointensity was observed after T-2-weighted MRI scans. These findings are consistent with iron deposition, and are usually observed in Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome (HSS), a condition which is also characterised by dystrophic axons diffusely present in the central nervous system. but without peripheral nervous system involvement. These observations raise the issue of different phenotypes of INAD, and are consistent with the existence of intermediate forms between INAD and HSS. Altered mechanisms of iron storage and transport to and from the cellular compartments may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

Neuroaxonal dystrophy with dystonia and pallidal involvement

Simonati A.
;
Salviati A.;Rizzuto N.
1999-01-01

Abstract

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is an autosomal recessive disease of infantile onset, characterised by progressive clinical course, multi-systemic involvement and widespread presence of dystrophic axons in both the central and peripheral nervous system. Clinical, neurophysiological and neuroradiological criteria of the disease are established, but the occurrence of atypical cases is known. Since the availability of molecular markers is still lacking, diagnostic evidence in vivo is provided by the presence of specific axonal lesions distally in the peripheral nerve fibres. In two children who had a protracted course of the disease with dystonic postures of the upper limbs and showed dystrophic axons following sural nerve biopsy, bilateral pallidal hypointensity was observed after T-2-weighted MRI scans. These findings are consistent with iron deposition, and are usually observed in Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome (HSS), a condition which is also characterised by dystrophic axons diffusely present in the central nervous system. but without peripheral nervous system involvement. These observations raise the issue of different phenotypes of INAD, and are consistent with the existence of intermediate forms between INAD and HSS. Altered mechanisms of iron storage and transport to and from the cellular compartments may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy; magnetic resonance imaging; pallidal hypointensity; dystonia; iron deposits; Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/304627
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