Background: Anterior Lumbosacral Interbody Fusion (ALIF) is a type of back surgery with the advantages of direct access to the spinal interbody space and the potential lessening morbidity related to posterior approaches.Purpose: To describe a rare case of left ureteral lesion from ALIF surgery diagnosed 4 months after the procedure.Case description: A 37-year-old Caucasian man with a long history of painful post-traumatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative L5-SI disc disease underwent a retroperitoneal anterior L5-SI discectomy, insertion of an interbody tantallium cage, and placement of a pyramid titanium plate fixed with screws. Four months later, due to recurrent left lumbar pain and mild renal failure, a CT scan was performed showing left hydronephrosis with a homolateral urinoma of 17 cm in diameter. A left nephrostomy was placed and the nephrostography detected a filiform leakage at L5-S I level in communication with the urinoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic urinoma drainage, distal left ureterectomy, and Casati-Boari flap ureterocystoneostomy with ureteral double J stent placement. The stent was held for sixweeks and, I month later, the control ultrasound scan was negative for hydronephrosis, the creatinine level had normalized and the patient was asymptomatic.Conclusion: Ureteral lesion from ALIF surgery is a very rare event. Spinal surgeons should be more awareness regarding the susceptibility of ureteral injuries along with the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, and management options for this kind of complication.
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