Background and Objectives: The impact of pure histological subtypes in testicular non-seminoma germ cell tumors on survival, specifically regarding pure embryonal carcinoma, is not well established. Therefore, this study aimed to test for differences between pure embryonal carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor patients within stages I, II and III in a large population-based database. Materials and Methods: We relied on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2019) to identify testicular pure embryonal carcinoma vs. mixed germ cell tumor patients. Cumulative incidence plots depicted cancer-specific mortality that represented the main endpoint of interest. Multivariable competing risks regression models tested for differences between pure embryonal carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor patients in analyses addressing cancer-specific mortality and adjusted for other-cause mortality. Results: Of 11,223 patients, 2473 (22%) had pure embryonal carcinoma. Pure embryonal carcinoma patients exhibited lower cancer-specific mortality relative to their mixed germ cell tumor counterparts for both stage III (13.9 vs. 19.4%; p < 0.01) and stage II (0.5 vs. 3.4%, p < 0.01), but not in stage I (0.9 vs. 1.6%, p = 0.1). In multivariable competing risks regression models, pure embryonal carcinoma exhibited more favorable cancer-specific mortality than mixed germ cell tumor in stage III (hazard ratio 0.71, p = 0.01) and stage II (hazard ratio 0.11, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Pure embryonal carcinoma exhibits a more favorable cancer-specific mortality profile relative to mixed germ cell tumor in stage II and III testicular cancers. Consequently, the presence of mixed germ cell tumor elements may be interpreted as a risk factor for cancer-specific survival.

Survival of Testicular Pure Embryonal Carcinoma vs. Mixed Germ Cell Tumor Patients across All Stages

Andrea Panunzio;alessandro antonelli;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background and Objectives: The impact of pure histological subtypes in testicular non-seminoma germ cell tumors on survival, specifically regarding pure embryonal carcinoma, is not well established. Therefore, this study aimed to test for differences between pure embryonal carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor patients within stages I, II and III in a large population-based database. Materials and Methods: We relied on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2019) to identify testicular pure embryonal carcinoma vs. mixed germ cell tumor patients. Cumulative incidence plots depicted cancer-specific mortality that represented the main endpoint of interest. Multivariable competing risks regression models tested for differences between pure embryonal carcinoma and mixed germ cell tumor patients in analyses addressing cancer-specific mortality and adjusted for other-cause mortality. Results: Of 11,223 patients, 2473 (22%) had pure embryonal carcinoma. Pure embryonal carcinoma patients exhibited lower cancer-specific mortality relative to their mixed germ cell tumor counterparts for both stage III (13.9 vs. 19.4%; p < 0.01) and stage II (0.5 vs. 3.4%, p < 0.01), but not in stage I (0.9 vs. 1.6%, p = 0.1). In multivariable competing risks regression models, pure embryonal carcinoma exhibited more favorable cancer-specific mortality than mixed germ cell tumor in stage III (hazard ratio 0.71, p = 0.01) and stage II (hazard ratio 0.11, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Pure embryonal carcinoma exhibits a more favorable cancer-specific mortality profile relative to mixed germ cell tumor in stage II and III testicular cancers. Consequently, the presence of mixed germ cell tumor elements may be interpreted as a risk factor for cancer-specific survival.
2023
SEER
cancer-specific mortality
non-seminoma
pure embryonal
testicular cancer
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1101647
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