Gastric adenocarcinoma has recently been classified into several subtypes on the basis of molecular profiling, which has been successfully reproduced by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH). A series of 73 gastroesophageal dysplastic lesions (37 gastric dysplasia and 36 Barrett dysplasia; 44 low-grade dysplasia and 29 high-grade dysplasia) was investigated for mismatch repair proteins, E-cadherin, p53, and EBER status, to reproduce The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) molecular clustering. Overall, the dysplastic lesions were classified as follows: according to TCGA classification, EBV, 0/73 (0%), MSI, 6/73 (8.2%), GS, 4/73 (5.5%), CIN, 63/73 (86.3%); according to ACRG molecular subtyping, MSI, 6/73 (8.2%), MSS/EMT, 4/73 (5.5%), MSS/TP53-, 33/73 (45.2%), MSS/TP53+, 30/73 (41.1%). A positive association was found between MSS/TP53- and Barrett dysplasia (p = 0.0004), between MSS/TP53+ and LG dysplasia (p = 0.001) and between MSS/TP53+ and gastric dysplasia (p = 0.0018). Gastroesophageal dysplastic lesions proved to be heterogenous in terms of TCGA/ACRG classes, but with a different distribution from that of cancers, with no EBV-positive cases, an increasing presence of mismatch repair deficiency from low grade to high grade lesions, and a prevalence of p53 aberrations in Barrett dysplasia. The present study further demonstrated that gastroesophageal dysplastic lesions may be characterized by alterations in predictive/prognostic biomarkers, and this should be considered in routine diagnostic.
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