Background: Combinations based on immune checkpoint inhibitors are the new first-line standard treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) has a dismal prognosis but good immunogenicity. Methods: The authors performed a network meta-analysis of Phase III randomized trials of immune checkpoint inhibitor-based combinations versus standard tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy reporting data for sRCC. The endpoints were overall survival, progression-free survival and objective response rate. Results: Five trials comprising 569 sRCC patients (out of a total of 4409 metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients) were included. Nivolumab-cabozantinib was the highest ranking treatment for overall survival (p-value = 88%) and progression-free survival (p-value = 81%). Atezolizumab-bevacizumab had the highest rank for objective response rate (p-value = 80%). Conclusion: Despite some limitations, nivolumab-cabozantinib might be the preferred first-line option for sRCC in terms of efficacy.
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