Human Angiogenin (hANG, or ANG, 14.1 kDa) promotes vessel formation and is also called RNase 5 because it is included in the pancreatic-type ribonuclease (pt-RNase) super-family. Although low, its ribonucleolytic activity is crucial for angiogenesis in tumor tissues but also in the physiological development of the Central Nervous System (CNS) neuronal progenitors. Nevertheless, some ANG variants are involved in both neurodegenerative Parkinson disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Notably, some pt-RNases acquire new biological functions upon oligomerization. Considering neurodegenerative diseases correlation with massive protein aggregation, we analyzed the aggregation propensity of ANG and of three of its pathogenic variants, namely H13A, S28N, and R121C. We found no massive aggregation, but wt-ANG, as well as S28N and R121C variants, can form an enzymatically active dimer, which is called ANG-D. By contrast, the enzymatically inactive H13A-ANG does not dimerize. Corroborated by a specific cross-linking analysis and by the behavior of H13A-ANG that in turn lacks one of the two His active site residues necessary for pt-RNases to self-associate through the three-dimensional domain swapping (3D-DS), we demonstrate that ANG actually dimerizes through 3D-DS. Then, we deduce by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and modeling that ANG-D forms through the swapping of ANG N-termini. In light of these novelties, we can expect future investigations to unveil other ANG determinants possibly related with the onset and/or development of neurodegenerative pathologies.

Dimerization of human angiogenin and of variants involved in neurodegenerative diseases

Fasoli, Sabrina;Bettin, Ilaria;Montioli, Riccardo;Fagagnini, Andrea;Gotte, Giovanni
2021

Abstract

Human Angiogenin (hANG, or ANG, 14.1 kDa) promotes vessel formation and is also called RNase 5 because it is included in the pancreatic-type ribonuclease (pt-RNase) super-family. Although low, its ribonucleolytic activity is crucial for angiogenesis in tumor tissues but also in the physiological development of the Central Nervous System (CNS) neuronal progenitors. Nevertheless, some ANG variants are involved in both neurodegenerative Parkinson disease (PD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Notably, some pt-RNases acquire new biological functions upon oligomerization. Considering neurodegenerative diseases correlation with massive protein aggregation, we analyzed the aggregation propensity of ANG and of three of its pathogenic variants, namely H13A, S28N, and R121C. We found no massive aggregation, but wt-ANG, as well as S28N and R121C variants, can form an enzymatically active dimer, which is called ANG-D. By contrast, the enzymatically inactive H13A-ANG does not dimerize. Corroborated by a specific cross-linking analysis and by the behavior of H13A-ANG that in turn lacks one of the two His active site residues necessary for pt-RNases to self-associate through the three-dimensional domain swapping (3D-DS), we demonstrate that ANG actually dimerizes through 3D-DS. Then, we deduce by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and modeling that ANG-D forms through the swapping of ANG N-termini. In light of these novelties, we can expect future investigations to unveil other ANG determinants possibly related with the onset and/or development of neurodegenerative pathologies.
3D domain swapping
Parkinson’s disease (PD)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
human angiogenin
protein oligomerization
ribonuclease
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1049864
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