Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a serious, yet incurable, complication of external beam radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. Macrophages are key cellular actors in RIF because of their ability to produce reactive oxidants, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines that, in turn, are the drivers of pro-fibrotic pathways. In a previous work, we showed that phagocytosis could be exploited to deliver the potent natural antioxidant astaxanthin specifically to macrophages. For this purpose, astaxanthin encapsulated into μm-sized protein particles could spe- cifically target macrophages that can uptake the particles by phagocytosis. In these cells, astaxanthin microparticles significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels and the secretion of bioactive TGFβ and increased cell survival after radiation treatments. Here we show that pentoxifylline, a drug currently used for the treatment of muscle pain resulting from peripheral artery disease, amplifies the effects of astaxanthin microparticles on J774A.1 macrophages. Combination treatments with pentoxifylline and encapsulated astaxanthin might reduce the risk of RIF in cancer patients.

Effects of Combination Treatments with Astaxanthin-Loaded Microparticles and Pentoxifylline on Intracellular ROS and Radiosensitivity of J774A.1 Macrophages

Eleonora Binatti
;
Gianni Zoccatelli;Federica Mainente;Roberto Chignola
2021

Abstract

Radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) is a serious, yet incurable, complication of external beam radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. Macrophages are key cellular actors in RIF because of their ability to produce reactive oxidants, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines that, in turn, are the drivers of pro-fibrotic pathways. In a previous work, we showed that phagocytosis could be exploited to deliver the potent natural antioxidant astaxanthin specifically to macrophages. For this purpose, astaxanthin encapsulated into μm-sized protein particles could spe- cifically target macrophages that can uptake the particles by phagocytosis. In these cells, astaxanthin microparticles significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels and the secretion of bioactive TGFβ and increased cell survival after radiation treatments. Here we show that pentoxifylline, a drug currently used for the treatment of muscle pain resulting from peripheral artery disease, amplifies the effects of astaxanthin microparticles on J774A.1 macrophages. Combination treatments with pentoxifylline and encapsulated astaxanthin might reduce the risk of RIF in cancer patients.
pentoxifylline
astaxanthin
particle encapsulation
oxidative stress
ionizing radiations
macrophages
radiation-induced fibrosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1047753
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