Detecting the presence of persons and estimating their quantity in an indoor environment has grown in importance recently. For example, the information if a room is unoccupied can be used for automatically switching off the light, air conditioning, and ventilation, thereby saving significant amounts of energy in public buildings. Most existing solutions rely on dedicated hardware installations, which involve presence sensors, video cameras, and carbon dioxide sensors. Unfortunately, such approaches are costly, subject to privacy concerns, have high computational requirements, and lack ubiquitousness. The work presented in this article addresses these limitations by proposing a low-cost occupancy detection system. Our approach builds upon detecting variations in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) signals related to the presence of humans. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated by performing comprehensive tests on five different datasets. We apply several pattern recognition models and compare our methodology with systems building upon IEEE 802.11 (WiFi). On average, in multifarious environments, we can correctly classify the occupancy with an accuracy of 97.97%. When estimating the number of people in a room, on average, the estimated number of subjects differs from the actual one by 0.32 persons. We conclude that our system's performance is comparable to that of existing ones based on WiFi, while significantly reducing cost and installation effort. Hence, our approach makes occupancy detection practical for real-world deployments.

Estimating Indoor Occupancy Through Low-Cost BLE Devices

Demrozi, F;Turetta, C;Chiarani, F;Kindt, PH;Pravadelli, G
2021

Abstract

Detecting the presence of persons and estimating their quantity in an indoor environment has grown in importance recently. For example, the information if a room is unoccupied can be used for automatically switching off the light, air conditioning, and ventilation, thereby saving significant amounts of energy in public buildings. Most existing solutions rely on dedicated hardware installations, which involve presence sensors, video cameras, and carbon dioxide sensors. Unfortunately, such approaches are costly, subject to privacy concerns, have high computational requirements, and lack ubiquitousness. The work presented in this article addresses these limitations by proposing a low-cost occupancy detection system. Our approach builds upon detecting variations in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) signals related to the presence of humans. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated by performing comprehensive tests on five different datasets. We apply several pattern recognition models and compare our methodology with systems building upon IEEE 802.11 (WiFi). On average, in multifarious environments, we can correctly classify the occupancy with an accuracy of 97.97%. When estimating the number of people in a room, on average, the estimated number of subjects differs from the actual one by 0.32 persons. We conclude that our system's performance is comparable to that of existing ones based on WiFi, while significantly reducing cost and installation effort. Hence, our approach makes occupancy detection practical for real-world deployments.
Wireless fidelity
Sensors
Receivers
Ventilation
Received signal strength indicator
Feature extraction
Real-time systems
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
occupancy detection
occupancy counting
pattern recognition
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1047159
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