Newer biologic drugs and immunomodulatory agents, as well as more tolerated and effective radiation therapy schemes, have reduced treatment toxicity in oncology patients. However, although imaging assessment of tumor response is adapting to atypical responses like tumor flare, expected changes and complications of chemo/radiotherapy are still routinely encountered in post-treatment imaging examinations. Radiologists must be aware of old and newer therapeutic options and related side effects or complications to avoid a misinterpretation of imaging findings. Further, advancements in oncology research have increased life expectancy of patients as well as the frequency of long-term therapy-related side effects that once could not be observed. This pictorial will help radiologists tasked to detect therapy-related complications and to differentiate expected changes of normal tissues from tumor relapse.
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