Objective: To determine whether children and youths with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have early alterations of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus detectable with In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and to investigate the role of longitudinally measured major risk factors for diabetes complications associated with these alterations. Methods: One hundred and fifty children and youths with T1D and 51 age-matched controls were enrolled and underwent IVCM. Corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), corneal nerve branch density (CNBD), corneal fiber total branch density (CTBD), and corneal fiber fractal dimension (CNFrD) were measured. Risk factors for diabetes complications (blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipoproteins, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio) were recorded at IVCM and longitudinally since T1D onset. Unpaired t-test was used to compare variables between the groups. Multiple regression models were calculated using IVCM parameters as dependent variables and risk factors as independent variables. Results: All IVCM parameters, except CTBD, were significantly lower in the T1D patients. Glycometabolic control (HbA1c, visit-to-visit HbA1c variability, and mean HbA1c), and blood pressure were inversely correlated with IVCM parameters. Multiple regression showed that part of the variability in CNFL, CNFD, CTBD, and CNFraD was explained by HbA1c, blood pressure percentiles, and age at IVCM examination, independent of diabetes duration, BMI percentile, and LDL cholesterol. Comparable results were obtained using the mean value of risk factors measured longitudinally since T1D onset. Conclusions: Early signs of corneal nerve degeneration were found in children and youths with T1D. Glycometabolic control and blood pressure were the major risk factors for these alterations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
|Titolo:||In vivo confocal microscopy study of corneal nerve alterations in children and youths with Type 1 Diabetes|
PEDROTTI, Emilio (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2021|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|