Radiation-induced fibrosis is a serious long-lasting side effect of radiation therapy. Central to this condition is the role of macrophages that, activated by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species and tissue cell damage, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFb). This, in turn, recruits fibroblasts at the site of the lesion that initiates fibrosis. We investigated whether astaxanthin, an antioxidant molecule extracted from marine and freshwater organisms, could help control macrophage activation. To this purpose, we encapsulated food-grade astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis into micrometer-sized whey protein particles to specifically target macrophages that can uptake material within this size range by phagocytosis. The data show that astaxanthin-loaded microparticles are resistant to radiation, are well-tolerated by J774A.1 macrophages, induce in these cells a significant reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species and inhibit the release of active TGFb as evaluated in a bioassay with transformed MFB-F11 fibroblasts. Micro-encapsulation of bioactive molecules is a promising strategy to specifically target phagocytic cells and modulate their own functions.

Phagocytosis of Astaxanthin-Loaded Microparticles Modulates TGFβ Production and Intracellular ROS Levels in J774A.1 Macrophages

Eleonora Binatti;Gianni Zoccatelli;Francesca Zanoni;Giulia Donà;Federica Mainente;Roberto Chignola
2021-01-01

Abstract

Radiation-induced fibrosis is a serious long-lasting side effect of radiation therapy. Central to this condition is the role of macrophages that, activated by radiation-induced reactive oxygen species and tissue cell damage, produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFb). This, in turn, recruits fibroblasts at the site of the lesion that initiates fibrosis. We investigated whether astaxanthin, an antioxidant molecule extracted from marine and freshwater organisms, could help control macrophage activation. To this purpose, we encapsulated food-grade astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis into micrometer-sized whey protein particles to specifically target macrophages that can uptake material within this size range by phagocytosis. The data show that astaxanthin-loaded microparticles are resistant to radiation, are well-tolerated by J774A.1 macrophages, induce in these cells a significant reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species and inhibit the release of active TGFb as evaluated in a bioassay with transformed MFB-F11 fibroblasts. Micro-encapsulation of bioactive molecules is a promising strategy to specifically target phagocytic cells and modulate their own functions.
astaxanthin, protein microparticles, macrophage targeting, oxidative stress, TGFb; inflammation, radiotherapy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1041260
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