Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, COVID-19 appeared as a unique disease with unconventional tissue and systemic immune features. Here we show a COVID-19 immune signature associated with severity by integrating single-cell RNA-seq analysis from blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage fluids with clinical, immunological and functional ex vivo data. This signature is characterized by lung accumulation of naïve lymphoid cells associated with a systemic expansion and activation of myeloid cells. Myeloid-driven immune suppression is a hallmark of COVID-19 evolution, highlighting arginase-1 expression with immune regulatory features of monocytes. Monocyte-dependent and neutrophil-dependent immune suppression loss is associated with fatal clinical outcome in severe patients. Additionally, our analysis shows a lung CXCR6+ effector memory T cell subset is associated with better prognosis in patients with severe COVID-19. In summary, COVID-19-induced myeloid dysregulation and lymphoid impairment establish a condition of 'immune silence' in patients with critical COVID-19.

Deciphering the state of immune silence in fatal COVID-19 patients

De Sanctis, Francesco;Canè, Stefania;Ugel, Stefano;Donadello, Katia;Castellucci, Monica;Fiore, Alessandra;Anselmi, Cristina;Barouni, Roza Maria;Trovato, Rosalinda;Caligola, Simone;Mazzariol, Annarita;Gibellini, Davide;De Nardo, Pasquale;Tacconelli, Evelina;Gottin, Leonardo;Polati, Enrico;Bronte, Vincenzo
2021

Abstract

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, COVID-19 appeared as a unique disease with unconventional tissue and systemic immune features. Here we show a COVID-19 immune signature associated with severity by integrating single-cell RNA-seq analysis from blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage fluids with clinical, immunological and functional ex vivo data. This signature is characterized by lung accumulation of naïve lymphoid cells associated with a systemic expansion and activation of myeloid cells. Myeloid-driven immune suppression is a hallmark of COVID-19 evolution, highlighting arginase-1 expression with immune regulatory features of monocytes. Monocyte-dependent and neutrophil-dependent immune suppression loss is associated with fatal clinical outcome in severe patients. Additionally, our analysis shows a lung CXCR6+ effector memory T cell subset is associated with better prognosis in patients with severe COVID-19. In summary, COVID-19-induced myeloid dysregulation and lymphoid impairment establish a condition of 'immune silence' in patients with critical COVID-19.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/1038348
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