Inflammation represents the manifestation of the host's vascular and cellular response to tissue damage, hypersensitivity of the immune system or autoimmunity. As soon as the damage is detected, the mechanisms of localization and removal of foreign substances and damaged tissues are triggered. This response is amplified by the activation of inflammatory cells and by the production of chemical mediators derived from arachidonic acid, vasoactive substances and cytokines. At the ocular level, among the different responses implemented by various inflammation mediators, the action of prostaglandins is mainly expressed in three ways: i) change of intraocular pressure; ii) induction of miosis; iii) increase of protein concentration in the aqueous humor. Ocular inflammation may continue long after the cessation of the initial cause and may also lead to serious consequences, including permanent vision reduction. For this reason, it is essential to establish a correct and effective therapeutic strategy, which allows to control inflammation, the symptoms and the clinical signs associated with it. This article therefore deals with therapeutic strategies to control inflammation, with a particular focus on the role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in cataract surgery.
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