Introduction: Being elderly is a well-known risk factor for candidemia, but few data are available on the prognostic impact of candidemia in the very old (VO) subjects, as defined as people aged >= 75 years. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for nosocomial candidemia in two groups of candidemia patients, consisting of VO patients (>= 75 years) and adult and old (AO) patients (18-74 years). In addition, risk factors for death (30-day mortality) were analysed separately in the two groups. Methods: We included all consecutive candidemia episodes from January 2011 to December 2013 occurring in six referral hospitals in north-eastern Italy. Results: A total of 683 nosocomial candidemia episodes occurred. Of those, 293 (42.9%) episodes were in VO and 390 (57.1%) in AO patients. Hospitalization in medical wards, chronic renal failure, urinary catheter, and peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) were more common in VO than in AO patients. In the former patient group, adequate antifungal therapy (73.2%) and central venous catheter (CVC) removal (67.6%) occurred less frequently than in AO patients (82.5 and 80%, p < 0.002 and p < 0.004, respectively). Thirty-day mortality was higher in VO compared to AO patients (47.8 vs. 23.6%, p < 0.0001). In AO patients, independent risk factors for death were age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09, p = 0.038), recent history of chemotherapy (OR 22.01, 95% CI 3.12-155.20, p = 0.002), and severity of sepsis (OR 40.68, 95% CI 7.42-223.10, p < 0.001); CVC removal was associated with higher probability of survival (OR 0.10, 95% CI 0.03-0.33, p < 0.001). In VO patients, independent risk factors for death were PPN (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.17-10.47, p = 0.025) and hospitalization in medical wards (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.02-6.53, p = 0.046), while CVC removal was associated with improved survival (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.16-1.00, p = 0.050). Conclusion: Thirty-day mortality was high among VO patients and was associated with inadequate management of candidemia, especially in medical wards.
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