Health is intended as a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellness (W.H.O., 2000). In industrial countries the aging boom has produced a real emergency, since society has not prevented the development of frailty and disability in older individuals. In Italy, laws for health and welfare try to find a balance for assisting older individuals with chronic diseases. Personal autonomy is one of the most important demands from aging citizens and from society. Diseases, multi-pathologies, inactivity, and depression increase the risk of disability and the demand of intensive and extensive assistance. According the World Health Organization, measures to keep elders healthy and active are a necessity, not a luxury (2002). Regular, soft, and adapted physical activity can contrast the progression of disability and can improve the quality of life for older individuals, as long as possible. This study took place in Liguria, the region where the presence of older individuals is the highest in Italy (25.4%of people in Liguria are more than 65 years old, while Italy’s national percentage is 18.6%) (Istat, 2005). The Course of Bachelor in Sport Sciences of the University of Genoa and the Sanitary Aging Department of Genoa created an adapted physical activity home-care service. The longitudinal analysis supports improvement from or adaptation to physical activities, and deepens the role of some psychosocial factors. The research focused on subjective well-being (General Health Questionnaire), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale) and perceived social support from significant others (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support). The study investigated physical abilities and functionalities, and measured rising, walking, and getting up independence (Timed Up and Go Test), estimating different physical measures of strength, global, and district flexibility (Physical Balance Test). Examined subjects are a group of older people, former patients of the Sanitary Aging Department, previously physically rehabilitated, in consequence of acute pathological events. The whole group of nine subjects (M = 2, F = 7), whose ages vary from 69 to 94 years (median age: 78 years), have participated, since 2003, in an adapted physical activity home program. Important suggestions emerge from the results, supplying information to develop the theoretical debate on adapted physical activity and aging (Hazzard et al., 1994; Shephard, 1997), useful to support interventions that promote health and wellness
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