Angiomyolipoma is the most common mesenchymal tumour of the kidney, even if for a long time it has been viewed as a hamartoma rather than a neoplasm. It belongs to a family of neoplasms, named PEComa, characterised by the constant presence of perivascular epithelioid cells that co-express smooth muscle and melanogenesis markers. Angiomyolipoma can occur in patients with tuberous sclerosis, a hereditary syndrome due to the alteration of TSC1 or TSC2 genes, or sporadically. Angiomyolipoma and its variants are indolent tumours; however, some epithelioid angiomyolipomas/pure epithelioid PEComas are aggressive, and criteria for malignancy have been proposed to identify those cases. Although typical angiomyolipoma is a straightforward diagnosis, pathologists should be aware of the wide morphological spectrum of its variants which could be tricky in routine clinical practice and could require immunohistochemical analysis for resolution. The differential diagnosis may range from an inflammatory process (for instance xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis) to the most common renal cancers and sarcomas. The immunoexpression of melanogenesis markers (HMB45 and Melan-A) and cathepsin K is extremely helpful in the majority of cases. Recently, a subset of epithelioid angiomyolipoma/pure epithelioid PEComa harbouring TFE3 gene fusions has been described, raising questions about its relationship with the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumour. The activation of the mTOR pathway due to genetic alterations of tuberous sclerosis complex in TSC1 or TSC2 genes in angiomyolipoma has also been reported as well as the subsequent therapeutic implications.

Angiomyolipoma of the kidney: from simple hamartoma to complex tumour

Caliò, Anna;Brunelli, Matteo;Segala, Diego;Zamboni, Giuseppe;Bonetti, Franco;Martignoni, Guido
2021-01-01

Abstract

Angiomyolipoma is the most common mesenchymal tumour of the kidney, even if for a long time it has been viewed as a hamartoma rather than a neoplasm. It belongs to a family of neoplasms, named PEComa, characterised by the constant presence of perivascular epithelioid cells that co-express smooth muscle and melanogenesis markers. Angiomyolipoma can occur in patients with tuberous sclerosis, a hereditary syndrome due to the alteration of TSC1 or TSC2 genes, or sporadically. Angiomyolipoma and its variants are indolent tumours; however, some epithelioid angiomyolipomas/pure epithelioid PEComas are aggressive, and criteria for malignancy have been proposed to identify those cases. Although typical angiomyolipoma is a straightforward diagnosis, pathologists should be aware of the wide morphological spectrum of its variants which could be tricky in routine clinical practice and could require immunohistochemical analysis for resolution. The differential diagnosis may range from an inflammatory process (for instance xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis) to the most common renal cancers and sarcomas. The immunoexpression of melanogenesis markers (HMB45 and Melan-A) and cathepsin K is extremely helpful in the majority of cases. Recently, a subset of epithelioid angiomyolipoma/pure epithelioid PEComa harbouring TFE3 gene fusions has been described, raising questions about its relationship with the family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumour. The activation of the mTOR pathway due to genetic alterations of tuberous sclerosis complex in TSC1 or TSC2 genes in angiomyolipoma has also been reported as well as the subsequent therapeutic implications.
2021
Angiomyolipoma; PEComa; TFE3; autophagy; biology; immunohistochemistry; tuberous sclerosis; variants
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/1028749
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