Neutrophils, the most abundant white blood cells in human circulation, entertain intense interactions with other leukocyte subsets, platelets, and stromal cells. Molecularly, such interactions are typically communicated through proteins generated during granulopoiesis, stored in granules, or produced on demand. Here, we provide an overview of the mammalian regulation of granule protein production in the bone marrow and the de novo synthesis of cytokines by neutrophils recruited to tissues. In addition, we discuss some of the known biological roles of these protein messengers, and how neutrophil-borne granule proteins and cytokines can synergize to modulate inflammation and tumor development. Decoding the neutrophil interactome is important for therapeutically neutralizing individual proteins to putatively dampen inflammation, or for delivering modified neutrophil-borne proteins to boost host defense.
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