A 51-year old male patient was admitted to the hospital with acute dyspnea and history of chronic asthma. Venous blood was drawn into a 3.0 mL heparinized syringe and delivered to the laboratory for blood gas analysis (GEM Premier 4000, Instrumentation Laboratory), which revealed high potassium value (5.2 mmol/L; reference range on whole blood, 3.5-4.5 mmol/L). This result was unexpected, so that a second venous blood sample was immediately drawn by direct venipuncture into a 3.5 mL lithium-heparin blood tube, and delivered to the laboratory for repeating potassium testing on Cobas 8000 (Roche Diagnostics). The analysis revealed normal plasma potassium (4.6 mmol/L; reference range in plasma, 3.5-5.0 mmol/L) and haemolysis index (5; 0.05 g/L). Due to suspicion of spurious haemolysis, heparinized blood was transferred from syringe into a plastic tube and centrifuged. Potassium and haemolysis index were then measured in this heparinized plasma, confirming high haemolysis index (50; 0.5 g/L) and pseudohyperkalemia (5.5 mmol/L). Investigation of this case revealed that spurious haemolysis was attributable to syringe delivery in direct ice contact for ~15 min. This case emphasizes the importance of avoiding sample transportation in ice and the need of developing point of care analysers equipped with interference indices assessment.

A paradigmatic case of haemolysis and pseudohyperkalemia in blood gas analysis

Salvagno, Gian Luca;Lippi, Giuseppe
2019

Abstract

A 51-year old male patient was admitted to the hospital with acute dyspnea and history of chronic asthma. Venous blood was drawn into a 3.0 mL heparinized syringe and delivered to the laboratory for blood gas analysis (GEM Premier 4000, Instrumentation Laboratory), which revealed high potassium value (5.2 mmol/L; reference range on whole blood, 3.5-4.5 mmol/L). This result was unexpected, so that a second venous blood sample was immediately drawn by direct venipuncture into a 3.5 mL lithium-heparin blood tube, and delivered to the laboratory for repeating potassium testing on Cobas 8000 (Roche Diagnostics). The analysis revealed normal plasma potassium (4.6 mmol/L; reference range in plasma, 3.5-5.0 mmol/L) and haemolysis index (5; 0.05 g/L). Due to suspicion of spurious haemolysis, heparinized blood was transferred from syringe into a plastic tube and centrifuged. Potassium and haemolysis index were then measured in this heparinized plasma, confirming high haemolysis index (50; 0.5 g/L) and pseudohyperkalemia (5.5 mmol/L). Investigation of this case revealed that spurious haemolysis was attributable to syringe delivery in direct ice contact for ~15 min. This case emphasizes the importance of avoiding sample transportation in ice and the need of developing point of care analysers equipped with interference indices assessment.
case report, hemolysis, pseudohyperkalemia, blood gas analysis
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
A paradigmatic case.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Articolo principale
Tipologia: Altro materiale allegato
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 367.88 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
367.88 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/991702
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 2
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact