Over the last few decades, placebo, and nocebo effects in general, have been investigated at rest. This proposed study explores whether they could work even when the experience of pain occurs during a movement. Exercise itself can have a hypoalgesic effect, suggesting that placebo- and exercise-induced hypoalgesia could foster pain reduction. In the present study, we investigated the interplay of exercise, placebo and nocebo effects on pain. To this aim, we developed a machine-controlled isotonic motor task to standardize the exercise across participants and used a well-validated model of placebo and nocebo manipulations with reinforced expectations via a conditioning procedure including visual cues paired with heat painful stimulations. Participants reported expectations and pain on a trial-by-trial basis. We found that the standardized isotonic exercise elicited a reduction of pain intensity. Moreover, both exercise and placebo induced comparable hypoalgesic effects. When the exercise was added, placebo and nocebo effects were influenced by expectations but were not affected by fatigue or sex differences. Exercise-, placebo- and nocebo-induced pain modulation are likely to work through distinct mechanisms and neurophysiological research is needed to fully exploit the implications for sport, rehabilitation and pain management.
|Titolo:||The interplay of exercise, placebo and nocebo effects on experimental pain|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|