Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune illness characterized by insufficient production of insulin by pancreatic beta cells. This condition occurs by environmental disruption (mostly supported by viral infections or nutritional components) of immune tolerance in genetically susceptible individuals. The lack of concordance in monozygotic twins for common diseases as T1DM has led to hypothesize that epigenetics may have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of this condition, by modulating the relationship between the genotype and the phenotype. Epigenetics is commonly defined as the regulation of gene expression through chemical changes including DNA methylation or histone modulation of noncoding RNAs, without directly involving mutational changes in DNA. Epigenetics has recently contributed to amplify our understanding of the mechanisms underlying different pathological conditions for which causes other than genetic mutations and environmental factors are involved. Epigenetic modification in T1DM may hence mediate the environmental influence on expression of genes involved in the pathogenesis of disease. Therefore, this review is focused on describing the leading epigenetic mechanisms participating to the pathogenesis and progression of T1DM, and discussing the diagnostic or prognostic role of some potentially useful epigenetic biomarkers.
|Titolo:||Epigenetics in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus|
MONTAGNANA, Martina (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|