Quantitative measurements of brain perfusion are influenced by perfusion-modifiers. Standardization of measurement conditions and correction for important modifiers is essential to improve accuracy and to facilitate the interpretation of perfusion-derived parameters. An extensive literature search was carried out for factors influencing quantitative measurements of perfusion in the human brain unrelated to medication use. A total of 58 perfusion modifiers were categorized into four groups. Several factors (e.g., caffeine, aging, and blood gases) were found to induce a considerable effect on brain perfusion that was consistent across different studies; for other factors, the modifying effect was found to be debatable, due to contradictory results or lack of evidence. Using the results of this review, we propose a standard operating procedure, based on practices already implemented in several research centers. Also, a theory of ' deep MRI physiotyping' is inferred from the combined knowledge of factors influencing brain perfusion as a strategy to reduce variance by taking both personal information and the presence or absence of perfusion modifiers into account. We hypothesize that this will allow to personalize the concept of normality, as well as to reach more rigorous and earlier diagnoses of brain disorders.
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