Direct exposure and cannulation of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) provides an alternative access to reach the cavernous sinus for carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) embolization, when classic transvenous routes through the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) or facial vein are not feasible. We have used indocyanine green (ICG)-videoangiography to study intraoperatively the flow inside the SOV in two cases of indirect CCF. In this paper, we report the operative technique and the result of ICG videoangiographic-guided cannulation of the SOV for endovascular treatment of CCF. Two male patients, of 59 and 66 years of age respectively, presented at our Institution with right decreased visual acuity, persistent binocular diplopia and painful ophthalmoplegia, chemosis and proptosis, due to right unilateral indirect CCF fistula. The endovascular transvenous approach failed in one case due to thrombosis of the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) and the extreme tortuosity of the angular vein. In the other case, it was considered unfeasible due to an unfavourable vascular angioarchitecture. For this reason, an ICG videoangiographic-guided cannulation of the SOV, followed by endovascular obliteration of the CCF, was performed. CCF was cured in both cases with this approach. No additional neurological deficits and no complications due to SOV cannulation were registered during the hospital stay. There were no fistula recurrences during the mean follow-up of 18 months. ICG-videoangiography is a simple, fast and cost-effective technique that can be reliably applied in SOV cannulation for subsequent indirect CCF embolization.
|Titolo:||Indocyanine Green Videoangiographic-Guided Cannulation of the Superior Ophthalmic Vein for Endovascular Treatment of Carotid-Cavernous Fistulas|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|