Objectives—To investigate the modifications of uterine and fibroid volume, to study Doppler changes in uterine arteries and fibroid-supplying vessels, and to assess possible symptomatic relief after 3 months of treatment with ulipristal acetate. Methods—Forty-two premenopausal women with symptomatic fibroids were included in the study. They were evaluated clinically for the symptoms reported and underwent ultrasound examinations before starting treatment and after 3 months of therapy with ulipristal acetate. Transvaginal scanning was performed by the same sonographer, who measured the uterine volume and uterine artery pulsatility index and resistive index. Considering that some patients had more than 1 fibroid, the vascularization (supplying vessel pulsatility and resistive indices), locations, and sizes of a total of 73 fibroids were also recorded. Results—After 3 months of ulipristal acetate, patients had a significant improvement of all symptoms (P<.05). The percentage of uterine volume reduction was 14% (P=.03), with fibroid volume reduction of 32.8% (P=.01). Uterine artery vascular indices decreased after treatment, but their reduction did not reach significant results, whereas all fibroid vascular indices decreased significantly after 3 months of ulipristal acetate (P<.05). When the fibroids were divided according to their localization, all had significant volume reduction after therapy, but type 5 had the highest decrease (42%) compared to other fibroid types (P=.03). Conclusions—Fibroid treatment with ulipristal acetate resulted in a significant improvement of fibroid-related symptoms; moreover, it proved to be effective in decreasing both uterine and fibroid volumes and fibroid vascularization. Type 5 fibroids seem to have the most major response to treatment.
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