Cochlear implantation (CI) at an early age is associated with improvements in language comprehension and production; nevertheless, there is wide variability in language outcomes of children with CI (Szagun, & Schramm, 2016), even after accounting for age of implantation and duration of implant use. Individual differences are explained partially by the contribution of family environment and parental linguistic input and support during interaction with these children (Cruz, Quittner, Marker, & DesJardin, 2013; Holt, Beer, Kronenberg, Pisoni, & Lalonde, 2012); however, no study has assessed modalities and impact of parental support for language production of children with CI in the real-time of parent-child interaction. This study contributes to this research field by examining (a) modalities and functions of maternal and child communication during interaction between mothers and children with CI, compared with mothers and normally hearing (NH) children, and (b) effects of maternal vocal and/or gestural supportive utterances (repairs) in eliciting conversational responsiveness and adequate answers in children with CI. Participants were 15 preschoolers with CI (M = 39 months) and 30 NH children: 15 matched by chronological-age (CANH, M = 38 months), and 15 matched by hearing-age (i.e., with children whose chronological age corresponded to the duration of CI activation; HANH, M = 26 months), and their mothers. Each child-mother dyad was videotaped during shared book reading and toy play. All interactive sessions were entirely transcribed using the Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES). Child and maternal utterances were coded for modality (Unimodal Spoken, Bimodal (speech+gesture), Unimodal Gestural), gesture type (Deictic, Representational, Conventional), communicative functions (Assertion, Question, Repair, Regulation, and Reading for maternal utterances; Initiative, Request, and Answer for child utterances); child answers were examined according to linguistic and content adequacy (as Absent, Inadequate, Minimally Adequate, or Fully Adequate); maternal repairs were examined according to the type of provided support (as Informative Repair, Non-Informative Repair, or Expansion) and the presence of gesture accompanying speech. Results showed interesting differences among the three groups with respect to maternal communication and to dyadic communication dynamics. Specifically, during shared book reading mothers in the CI and CANH groups displayed higher proportions of Informative Repairs than mothers of HANH children (F(2,41)=5.33, p=.009 ; MCI-MHANH=6.18, p=.016; MCANH-MHANH= 6.33, p=.002). However, unlike the mothers in both groups of NH children, mothers of children with CI used Bimodal utterances (MCI =62.44, SD =19.31) significantly more than Unimodal Spoken utterances (MCI=37.56, SD=19.31) during interaction with their children (CI t(14)=2.50, p=.026), and in higher proportions than mothers of HANH children (F(2,41)=4.15, p=.023; MCI-MHANH=17.09, p=.008). Sequential analysis (GSEQ; Bakeman & Quera, 2011) between maternal utterances and child utterances in both interactive contexts revealed that maternal Informative Repairs elicited the production of Adequate Answers in both children with CI and CANH regardless of the context. Interestingly, in the CI group this association was found only when Informative Repairs were accompanied by gestures. These findings suggest that children with CI are more sensitive to gestural cues than NH children, and offer suggestions for intervention programs focused on parent-child conversation.

Communication dynamics between mothers and children with cochlear implants: Effects of maternal vocal and gestural support for language production

Lavelli M.;Majorano M.;Barachetti C.;
2017

Abstract

Cochlear implantation (CI) at an early age is associated with improvements in language comprehension and production; nevertheless, there is wide variability in language outcomes of children with CI (Szagun, & Schramm, 2016), even after accounting for age of implantation and duration of implant use. Individual differences are explained partially by the contribution of family environment and parental linguistic input and support during interaction with these children (Cruz, Quittner, Marker, & DesJardin, 2013; Holt, Beer, Kronenberg, Pisoni, & Lalonde, 2012); however, no study has assessed modalities and impact of parental support for language production of children with CI in the real-time of parent-child interaction. This study contributes to this research field by examining (a) modalities and functions of maternal and child communication during interaction between mothers and children with CI, compared with mothers and normally hearing (NH) children, and (b) effects of maternal vocal and/or gestural supportive utterances (repairs) in eliciting conversational responsiveness and adequate answers in children with CI. Participants were 15 preschoolers with CI (M = 39 months) and 30 NH children: 15 matched by chronological-age (CANH, M = 38 months), and 15 matched by hearing-age (i.e., with children whose chronological age corresponded to the duration of CI activation; HANH, M = 26 months), and their mothers. Each child-mother dyad was videotaped during shared book reading and toy play. All interactive sessions were entirely transcribed using the Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES). Child and maternal utterances were coded for modality (Unimodal Spoken, Bimodal (speech+gesture), Unimodal Gestural), gesture type (Deictic, Representational, Conventional), communicative functions (Assertion, Question, Repair, Regulation, and Reading for maternal utterances; Initiative, Request, and Answer for child utterances); child answers were examined according to linguistic and content adequacy (as Absent, Inadequate, Minimally Adequate, or Fully Adequate); maternal repairs were examined according to the type of provided support (as Informative Repair, Non-Informative Repair, or Expansion) and the presence of gesture accompanying speech. Results showed interesting differences among the three groups with respect to maternal communication and to dyadic communication dynamics. Specifically, during shared book reading mothers in the CI and CANH groups displayed higher proportions of Informative Repairs than mothers of HANH children (F(2,41)=5.33, p=.009 ; MCI-MHANH=6.18, p=.016; MCANH-MHANH= 6.33, p=.002). However, unlike the mothers in both groups of NH children, mothers of children with CI used Bimodal utterances (MCI =62.44, SD =19.31) significantly more than Unimodal Spoken utterances (MCI=37.56, SD=19.31) during interaction with their children (CI t(14)=2.50, p=.026), and in higher proportions than mothers of HANH children (F(2,41)=4.15, p=.023; MCI-MHANH=17.09, p=.008). Sequential analysis (GSEQ; Bakeman & Quera, 2011) between maternal utterances and child utterances in both interactive contexts revealed that maternal Informative Repairs elicited the production of Adequate Answers in both children with CI and CANH regardless of the context. Interestingly, in the CI group this association was found only when Informative Repairs were accompanied by gestures. These findings suggest that children with CI are more sensitive to gestural cues than NH children, and offer suggestions for intervention programs focused on parent-child conversation.
gesture
language
children with cochlear implants
maternal support
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/972340
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