We report the first Italian case of Mycobacterium chimaera disseminated infection in a patient with a history of cardiac surgery. The patient was initially diagnosed with sarcoidosis and started on immunosuppressive therapy. Ten months later she developed a vertebral osteomyelitis: M. chimaera was isolated from bone specimen. A review of the literature shows that M. chimaera infection occurs specifically in this population of patients, due to contamination of heater-cooler units used during cardiosurgery. Devices responsible for the transmission were produced by Sorin Group Deutschland. Mycobacterium chimaera infection should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
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