The two main drivers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) oligomers cooperatively accelerate AD progression, but a hot debate is still ongoing about which of the two appears first. Here we present preliminary evidence showing that Tau and p-Tau are expressed by untransformed cortical adult human astrocytes in culture and that exposure to such cells to an Aβ42 proxy, Aβ25-35, which binds the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and activates its signaling, significantly increases intracellular p-Tau levels, an effect CaSR antagonist (calcilytic) NPS 2143 wholly hinders. The astrocytes also release both Tau and p-Tau by means of exosomes into the extracellular medium, an activity that could mediate p-Tau diffusion within the brain. Preliminary data also indicate that exosomal levels of p-Tau increase after Aβ25-35 exposure, but remain unchanged in cells pre-treated for 30-min with NPS 2143 before adding Aβ25-35. Thus our previous and present findings raise the unifying prospect that AβCaSR signaling plays a crucial role in AD development and progression by simultaneously activating (i) the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor holoprotein, whose upshot is a surplus production and secretion of Aβ42 oligomers, and (ii) the GSK-3β-mediated increased production of p-Tau oligomers which are next released extracellularly inside exosomes. Therefore, as calcilytics suppress both effects on Aβ42 and p-Tau metabolic handling, these highly selective antagonists of pathological AβCaSR signaling would effectively halt AD’s progressive spread preserving patients’ cognition and life quality.

Amyloid β-exposed human astrocytes overproduce phospho-Tau and overrelease it within exosomes, effects suppressed by calcilytic NPS 2143--Further implications for Alzheimer’s therapy

CHIARINI, Anna Maria;ARMATO, Ubaldo;Gardenal, Emanuela;DAL PRÀ, Ilaria Pierpaola
2017

Abstract

The two main drivers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) oligomers cooperatively accelerate AD progression, but a hot debate is still ongoing about which of the two appears first. Here we present preliminary evidence showing that Tau and p-Tau are expressed by untransformed cortical adult human astrocytes in culture and that exposure to such cells to an Aβ42 proxy, Aβ25-35, which binds the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and activates its signaling, significantly increases intracellular p-Tau levels, an effect CaSR antagonist (calcilytic) NPS 2143 wholly hinders. The astrocytes also release both Tau and p-Tau by means of exosomes into the extracellular medium, an activity that could mediate p-Tau diffusion within the brain. Preliminary data also indicate that exosomal levels of p-Tau increase after Aβ25-35 exposure, but remain unchanged in cells pre-treated for 30-min with NPS 2143 before adding Aβ25-35. Thus our previous and present findings raise the unifying prospect that AβCaSR signaling plays a crucial role in AD development and progression by simultaneously activating (i) the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor holoprotein, whose upshot is a surplus production and secretion of Aβ42 oligomers, and (ii) the GSK-3β-mediated increased production of p-Tau oligomers which are next released extracellularly inside exosomes. Therefore, as calcilytics suppress both effects on Aβ42 and p-Tau metabolic handling, these highly selective antagonists of pathological AβCaSR signaling would effectively halt AD’s progressive spread preserving patients’ cognition and life quality.
amyloid-β, Tau, adult human astrocytes, exosome, calcium-sensing receptor, calcilytics, Alzheimer's disease, GSK-3β
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/960112
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