The interplay between pain and neurorehabilitation is very complex, in that pain may be a target for treatment, but can also have negative effects on neurorehabilitation procedures. Moreover, side effects of drugs, which are currently used to treat pain, may negatively influence rehabilitation outcomes. Because of the lack of guidelines or consensus, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCPN) was aimed to answer some open questions on the treatment of pain in this setting. To this aim, we collected evidence on the pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies and their role in the integrated approach to pain. Despite the lack of studies in patients undergoing neurorehabilitation, current guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of nociceptive and neuropathic pain may be applied in this setting. Non-pharmacological strategies include physical therapy, invasive procedures, psychological treatments and psychotherapy, which together with pharmacological therapies play a key role in the integrated approach to pain. The ICCPN recommendations offer information to ameliorate the current treatment of pain in neurorehabilitation, and to design future studies to answer the still open questions on this topic.
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