Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has traditionally been and, for the most part, still is being performed using roller pumps. Use of first-generation centrifugal pumps has yielded controversial outcomes, perhaps due to mechanical properties of the same and the ensuing risk of hemolysis and renal morbidity. Latest-generation centrifugal pumps, using magnetic levitation (ML), exhibit mechanical properties which may have overcome limitations of first-generation devices. This retrospective study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of veno-arterial (V-A) ECMO for cardiac indications in neonates, infants, and children, using standard (SP) and latest-generation ML centrifugal pumps. Between 2002 and 2014, 33 consecutive neonates, infants, and young children were supported using V-A ECMO for cardiac indications. There were 21 males and 12 females, with median age of 29 days (4 days-5 years) and a median body weight of 3.2 kg (1.9-18 kg). Indication for V-A ECMO were acute circulatory collapse in ICU or ward after cardiac repair in 16 (49%) patients, failure to wean after repair of complex congenital heart disease in 9 (27%), fulminant myocarditis in 4 (12%), preoperative sepsis in 2 (6%), and refractory tachy-arrhythmias in 2 (6%). Central cannulation was used in 27 (81%) patients and peripheral in 6. Seven (21%) patients were supported with SP and 26 (79%) with ML centrifugal pumps. Median duration of support was 82 h (range 24-672 h), with 26 (79%) patients weaned from support. Three patients required a second ECMO run but died on support. Seventeen (51%) patients required peritoneal dialysis for acute renal failure. Overall survival to discharge was 39% (13/33 patients). All patients with fulminant myocarditis and with refractory arrhythmias were weaned, and five (83%) survived, whereas no patient supported for sepsis survived. Risk factors for hospital mortality included lower (<2.5 kg) body weight (P = 0.02) and rescue ECMO after cardiac repair (P = 0.03). During a median follow-up of 34 months (range 4-62 months), there were three (23%) late deaths and two late survivors with neurological sequelae. Weaning rate (5/7 vs. 21/26, P = NS) and prevalence of renal failure requiring dialysis (4/7 vs. 13/26, P = NS) were comparable between SP and ML ECMO groups. Patients supported with ML had a trend toward higher hospital survival (1/7 vs. 12/26, P = 0.07) and significantly higher late survival (0/7 vs. 10/26, P = 0.05). The present experience shows that V-A ECMO for cardiac indications using centrifugal pumps in infants and children yields outcomes absolutely comparable to international registry (ELSO) data using mostly roller pumps. Although changes in practice may have contributed to these results, use of ML centrifugal pumps appears to further improve end-organ recovery and hospital and late survival.

Improved Outcome of Cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Infants and Children Using Magnetic Levitation Centrifugal Pumps.

LUCIANI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA;Hoxha, Stiljan;Torre, Salvatore;RUNGATSCHER, Alessio;MENON, Tiziano;BAROZZI, Luca;FAGGIAN, Giuseppe
2016

Abstract

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has traditionally been and, for the most part, still is being performed using roller pumps. Use of first-generation centrifugal pumps has yielded controversial outcomes, perhaps due to mechanical properties of the same and the ensuing risk of hemolysis and renal morbidity. Latest-generation centrifugal pumps, using magnetic levitation (ML), exhibit mechanical properties which may have overcome limitations of first-generation devices. This retrospective study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of veno-arterial (V-A) ECMO for cardiac indications in neonates, infants, and children, using standard (SP) and latest-generation ML centrifugal pumps. Between 2002 and 2014, 33 consecutive neonates, infants, and young children were supported using V-A ECMO for cardiac indications. There were 21 males and 12 females, with median age of 29 days (4 days-5 years) and a median body weight of 3.2 kg (1.9-18 kg). Indication for V-A ECMO were acute circulatory collapse in ICU or ward after cardiac repair in 16 (49%) patients, failure to wean after repair of complex congenital heart disease in 9 (27%), fulminant myocarditis in 4 (12%), preoperative sepsis in 2 (6%), and refractory tachy-arrhythmias in 2 (6%). Central cannulation was used in 27 (81%) patients and peripheral in 6. Seven (21%) patients were supported with SP and 26 (79%) with ML centrifugal pumps. Median duration of support was 82 h (range 24-672 h), with 26 (79%) patients weaned from support. Three patients required a second ECMO run but died on support. Seventeen (51%) patients required peritoneal dialysis for acute renal failure. Overall survival to discharge was 39% (13/33 patients). All patients with fulminant myocarditis and with refractory arrhythmias were weaned, and five (83%) survived, whereas no patient supported for sepsis survived. Risk factors for hospital mortality included lower (<2.5 kg) body weight (P = 0.02) and rescue ECMO after cardiac repair (P = 0.03). During a median follow-up of 34 months (range 4-62 months), there were three (23%) late deaths and two late survivors with neurological sequelae. Weaning rate (5/7 vs. 21/26, P = NS) and prevalence of renal failure requiring dialysis (4/7 vs. 13/26, P = NS) were comparable between SP and ML ECMO groups. Patients supported with ML had a trend toward higher hospital survival (1/7 vs. 12/26, P = 0.07) and significantly higher late survival (0/7 vs. 10/26, P = 0.05). The present experience shows that V-A ECMO for cardiac indications using centrifugal pumps in infants and children yields outcomes absolutely comparable to international registry (ELSO) data using mostly roller pumps. Although changes in practice may have contributed to these results, use of ML centrifugal pumps appears to further improve end-organ recovery and hospital and late survival.
ECMO; magnetic levitation pump; neonate; infant; pediatric cardiac surgery
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/945838
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