Purpose of review: This review discusses advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of status epilepticus and its current treatment approaches. Many of these have been topics at the 5th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on status epilepticus 2015. Recent findings: A new definition and classification of status epilepticus was proposed, which is expected to improve treatment and stimulate research. A better understanding of the failure of seizure suppressing mechanisms and the initiation of self-sustaining seizures begins to translate into the clinical arena. Drugs, such as allopregnanolone, cannabinoids, sec-butylpropylacetamide and valnoctamide, may better target these seizure-perpetuating mechanisms. The concept of combinatorial treatments has further developed, but yet trials in humans are lacking. A new prognostic outcome-score and electroencephalography-criteria for nonconvulsive status epilepticus are ready for clinical use. Alternative routes, such as intranasal or buccal, have been explored in a number of trials suggesting that intramuscular midazolam is at least as effective as intravenous lorazepam and buccal or intranasal midazolam is at least as effective as rectal diazepam. Summary: Despite progress in basic science, translation into the clinical field remains difficult. There is hope, that the two large phase III studies in the established and refractory status that started recruitment in 2015 will better inform the clinicians in this emergency situation.

Recent advances in status epilepticus

BRIGO, Francesco;
2016-01-01

Abstract

Purpose of review: This review discusses advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of status epilepticus and its current treatment approaches. Many of these have been topics at the 5th London-Innsbruck Colloquium on status epilepticus 2015. Recent findings: A new definition and classification of status epilepticus was proposed, which is expected to improve treatment and stimulate research. A better understanding of the failure of seizure suppressing mechanisms and the initiation of self-sustaining seizures begins to translate into the clinical arena. Drugs, such as allopregnanolone, cannabinoids, sec-butylpropylacetamide and valnoctamide, may better target these seizure-perpetuating mechanisms. The concept of combinatorial treatments has further developed, but yet trials in humans are lacking. A new prognostic outcome-score and electroencephalography-criteria for nonconvulsive status epilepticus are ready for clinical use. Alternative routes, such as intranasal or buccal, have been explored in a number of trials suggesting that intramuscular midazolam is at least as effective as intravenous lorazepam and buccal or intranasal midazolam is at least as effective as rectal diazepam. Summary: Despite progress in basic science, translation into the clinical field remains difficult. There is hope, that the two large phase III studies in the established and refractory status that started recruitment in 2015 will better inform the clinicians in this emergency situation.
antiepileptic drugs, electroencephalography, status epilepticus, treatment-prognosis
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/937555
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