Background and Objective: Prostate cancer is an endocrine-dependent tumor which is still under-investigated for physiopathology factors related to its natural history. The association of pretreatment total testosterone (TT) serum levels with prostate cancer is still a controversial topic. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations and functional relationships of preoperative TT serum level and pathology-detected Gleason score (pGS). Materials and Methods: Pretreatment and pathological variables of 220 patients operated with radical prostatectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), percentage of positive biopsy cores (P+), biopsy Gleason score (bGS), pGS, TT and free testosterone were the continuous variables, while clinical stage (cT: cT1c, cT2/3), biopsy Gleason pattern (bGP: <= 3+3, 3+4, >3+4), pathology Gleason pattern (pGP: <= 3+3, 3+4, >3+4), pathology stage (pT: pT2, pT3a, pT3b), pathology nodal staging (pN: pN0, pN1, pNx) and surgical margin invasion by cancer (R-, R+) were the categorical variables. Statistical methods were computed for assessing associations of TT and pGS; moreover, simple and multiple linear regression analysis (SLRA and MLRA) were used for assessing functional relationships of TT and pGS. Results: High-grade tumors (pGS >= 8.0) were associated with bGS >6.0 (p <0.0001), pGP >= 3+4 (p < 0.0001), P+ >0.31% (p = 0.006), cT2/3 (p = 0.01), TT > 15.5 nmol/l (p = 0.0004) and, to a lesser extent, PSA >6.27 mu g/l (p = 0.06). The odds ratio (OR) ranked as follows: 2.01 (PSA >6.27 mu g/l), 2.88 (cT2/3), 3.23 (P+ >0.31%), 5.53 (TT >15.5 nmol/l) and 12.09 (pGP >= 3+4 and pGS >= 8.0). On SLRA, pGS variation was significantly predicted by bGS (p < 0.0001), P+ (p < 0.0001), PSA (p = 0.0005) and TT (p = 0.02); on MLRA, pGS variation was still significantly predicted by bGS (p < 0.0001), P+ (p = 0.04), PSA (p = 0.03) and TT (p = 0.002). When bGS, P+, PSA and TT were dichotomized to their median value, only bGS (p < 0.0001) and TT (p = 0.001) showed independence in predicting pGS variation. The best model for predicting pGS variations was by dichotomizing TT above its median (>15.5 nmol/l) because the predictive coefficient increased to 0.32, which means that patients with TT >15.5 have a significantly higher estimated risk for high-grade pGS than patients with TT <= 5.5 nmol/l (OR = 1.31). Conclusion: In a patient population undergoing radical prostatectomy, increased pretreatment serum measurements of TT are associated with and functionally related to high-grade pGS; moreover, baseline TT together with bGS and PSA are important factors for predicting pGS and assessing high-grade tumors. Baseline TT serum levels might have prognostic potential for assessing treatment response for continuous as well as intermittent androgen deprivation therapy.

Associations of pretreatment serum total testosterone measurements with pathology-detected Gleason score cancer

PORCARO, Antonio Benito;CARUSO, BEATRICE;ARTIBANI, Walter
2014

Abstract

Background and Objective: Prostate cancer is an endocrine-dependent tumor which is still under-investigated for physiopathology factors related to its natural history. The association of pretreatment total testosterone (TT) serum levels with prostate cancer is still a controversial topic. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations and functional relationships of preoperative TT serum level and pathology-detected Gleason score (pGS). Materials and Methods: Pretreatment and pathological variables of 220 patients operated with radical prostatectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), percentage of positive biopsy cores (P+), biopsy Gleason score (bGS), pGS, TT and free testosterone were the continuous variables, while clinical stage (cT: cT1c, cT2/3), biopsy Gleason pattern (bGP: <= 3+3, 3+4, >3+4), pathology Gleason pattern (pGP: <= 3+3, 3+4, >3+4), pathology stage (pT: pT2, pT3a, pT3b), pathology nodal staging (pN: pN0, pN1, pNx) and surgical margin invasion by cancer (R-, R+) were the categorical variables. Statistical methods were computed for assessing associations of TT and pGS; moreover, simple and multiple linear regression analysis (SLRA and MLRA) were used for assessing functional relationships of TT and pGS. Results: High-grade tumors (pGS >= 8.0) were associated with bGS >6.0 (p <0.0001), pGP >= 3+4 (p < 0.0001), P+ >0.31% (p = 0.006), cT2/3 (p = 0.01), TT > 15.5 nmol/l (p = 0.0004) and, to a lesser extent, PSA >6.27 mu g/l (p = 0.06). The odds ratio (OR) ranked as follows: 2.01 (PSA >6.27 mu g/l), 2.88 (cT2/3), 3.23 (P+ >0.31%), 5.53 (TT >15.5 nmol/l) and 12.09 (pGP >= 3+4 and pGS >= 8.0). On SLRA, pGS variation was significantly predicted by bGS (p < 0.0001), P+ (p < 0.0001), PSA (p = 0.0005) and TT (p = 0.02); on MLRA, pGS variation was still significantly predicted by bGS (p < 0.0001), P+ (p = 0.04), PSA (p = 0.03) and TT (p = 0.002). When bGS, P+, PSA and TT were dichotomized to their median value, only bGS (p < 0.0001) and TT (p = 0.001) showed independence in predicting pGS variation. The best model for predicting pGS variations was by dichotomizing TT above its median (>15.5 nmol/l) because the predictive coefficient increased to 0.32, which means that patients with TT >15.5 have a significantly higher estimated risk for high-grade pGS than patients with TT <= 5.5 nmol/l (OR = 1.31). Conclusion: In a patient population undergoing radical prostatectomy, increased pretreatment serum measurements of TT are associated with and functionally related to high-grade pGS; moreover, baseline TT together with bGS and PSA are important factors for predicting pGS and assessing high-grade tumors. Baseline TT serum levels might have prognostic potential for assessing treatment response for continuous as well as intermittent androgen deprivation therapy.
Total testosterone, Free testosterone, Prostate-specific antigen, Prostate cancer, Biopsy Gleason score, Pathology-detected Gleason score
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/934425
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