Everolimus (EVE), a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has been proposed as liver transplant immunosuppressive drug, gaining wide interest also for the treatment of cancer. Although an appropriate tolerance, it may induce several adverse effects, such as fibro-interstitial pneumonitis due to the acquisition of activated myofibroblasts. The exact molecular mechanism associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be crucial also in the liver context. This work examines the role and the molecular mediators of EMT in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) and human liver cancer cells (HepG2) and the potential role of EVE to maintain the epithelial phenotype rather than to act as a potential initiators of EMT.Real time-PCR and western blot have been used to assess the capability of EVE at low-therapeutic (10 nM) and high (100 nM) dose to induce an in vitro EMT in HSC and HepG2.Biomolecular experiments demonstrated that low concentration of EVE (10 nM) did not modify the gene expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Vimentin (VIM), Fibronectin (FN) in both HSC and HepG2 cells, whereas EVE at 100 nM induced a significant over-expression of all the three above-mentioned genes and an increment of α-SMA and FN protein levels. Additionally, 100 nM of EVE induced a significant phosphorylation of AKT and an up-regulation of TGF-β expression in HSC and HepG2 cells.Our data, although obtained in an in vitro model, revealed, for the first time, that high concentration of EVE may induce EMT in liver cells confirming previous published evidences obtained in renal cells. Additionally, they suggested that mTOR-I should be administered at the lowest dose able to maximize their important and specific therapeutic properties minimizing or avoiding fibrosis-related adverse effects.In summary, if confirmed by additional studies, our results could be useful for researchers to standardize new therapeutic immunosuppressive and anticancer drugs protocols.
|Titolo:||Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the liver field: the double face of Everolimus in vitro.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|