The "amyloid cascade hypothesis" posits that an extracellular build-up of amyloid-β oligomers (Aβ-os) and polymers (fibrils) subsequently inducing toxic hyperphosphorylated (p)-Tau oligomers (p-Tau-os) and neurofibrillary tangles starts the sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in the aged lateral entorhinal cortex. Conversely, mutated genes cause a diffuse cerebral Aβs/Aβ-os overproduction promoting early-onset familiar AD (EOFAD). Surplus exogenous Aβ-os exert toxic actions at several levels. They reach the nuclei of human astrocyte-neurons teams (ANTs) to enhance the transcription of Aβ precursor protein (APP) and β-secretase/BACE1 genes. The overexpressed APP and BACE1 proteins act in concert with γ-secretase to overproduce endogenous Aβs/Aβ-os, of which a few enter the nuclei to upkeep Aβs overproduction, while the rest gather in the cytoplasm, damage mitochondria, and are oversecreted. Simultaneously, extracellular Aβ-os bind the ANTs' calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) activating signalings that hinder the proteolysis and hence favor the surplus hoarding/secretion of Aβs/Aβ-os. Overreleased Aβ-os spread, reach growing numbers of adjacent ANTs to recruit them to overproduce/oversecrete further Aβ-os amounts via the just mentioned mechanisms. Alongside, Aβ•CaSR signalings elicit a noxious overproduction/overrelease of nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A from ANTs' astrocytes. While astrocytes survive the toxic onslaught, neurons die. Thus, AD progression is driven by ceaselessly self-sustaining neurotoxic cycles, which engender first Aβ-os and later p-Tau-os that cooperatively destroy increasingly wider cognition-related cortical areas. Notably, a highly selective allosteric CaSR antagonist (calcilytic), like NPS 2143, does preserve human cortical postnatal HCN-1A neurons viability notwithstanding the presence of exogenous Aβ-os by suppressing the otherwise elicited oversecretion and spread of newly synthesized Aβ-os. Therefore, if given at minimal cognitive impairment or earlier stages, calcilytics could halt AD progression and preserve the patients' cortical neurons, cognitive abilities, and eventually life.

Preventing the spread of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology: a role for calcilytics?

CHIARINI, Anna Maria;Gardenal, Emanuela;ARMATO, Ubaldo;DAL PRÀ, Ilaria Pierpaola
2015

Abstract

The "amyloid cascade hypothesis" posits that an extracellular build-up of amyloid-β oligomers (Aβ-os) and polymers (fibrils) subsequently inducing toxic hyperphosphorylated (p)-Tau oligomers (p-Tau-os) and neurofibrillary tangles starts the sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) in the aged lateral entorhinal cortex. Conversely, mutated genes cause a diffuse cerebral Aβs/Aβ-os overproduction promoting early-onset familiar AD (EOFAD). Surplus exogenous Aβ-os exert toxic actions at several levels. They reach the nuclei of human astrocyte-neurons teams (ANTs) to enhance the transcription of Aβ precursor protein (APP) and β-secretase/BACE1 genes. The overexpressed APP and BACE1 proteins act in concert with γ-secretase to overproduce endogenous Aβs/Aβ-os, of which a few enter the nuclei to upkeep Aβs overproduction, while the rest gather in the cytoplasm, damage mitochondria, and are oversecreted. Simultaneously, extracellular Aβ-os bind the ANTs' calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) activating signalings that hinder the proteolysis and hence favor the surplus hoarding/secretion of Aβs/Aβ-os. Overreleased Aβ-os spread, reach growing numbers of adjacent ANTs to recruit them to overproduce/oversecrete further Aβ-os amounts via the just mentioned mechanisms. Alongside, Aβ•CaSR signalings elicit a noxious overproduction/overrelease of nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A from ANTs' astrocytes. While astrocytes survive the toxic onslaught, neurons die. Thus, AD progression is driven by ceaselessly self-sustaining neurotoxic cycles, which engender first Aβ-os and later p-Tau-os that cooperatively destroy increasingly wider cognition-related cortical areas. Notably, a highly selective allosteric CaSR antagonist (calcilytic), like NPS 2143, does preserve human cortical postnatal HCN-1A neurons viability notwithstanding the presence of exogenous Aβ-os by suppressing the otherwise elicited oversecretion and spread of newly synthesized Aβ-os. Therefore, if given at minimal cognitive impairment or earlier stages, calcilytics could halt AD progression and preserve the patients' cortical neurons, cognitive abilities, and eventually life.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/926222
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