Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are progenitor cells capable of self-renewal that can differentiate in multiple tissues and, under specific and standardized culture conditions, expand in vitro with little phenotypic alterations. In recent years, preclinical and clinical studies have focused on MSC analysis and understanding the potential use of these cells as a therapy in a wide range of pathologies, and many applications have been tested. Clinical trials using MSCs have been performed (e.g., for cardiac events, stroke, multiple sclerosis, blood diseases, auto-immune disorders, ischemia, and articular cartilage and bone pathologies), and for many genetic diseases, these cells are considered an important resource. Considering of the biology of MSCs, these cells may also be useful tools for understanding the physiopathology of different diseases, and they can be used to develop specific biomarkers for a broad range of diseases. In this editorial, we discuss the literature related to the use of MSCs for diagnostic applications and we suggest new technologies to improve their employment.
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