The market of functional foods is growing; this growth is fueled by an increased level of consumer attention to diet. The consumption of fruits and vegetables is generally associated with the idea of well-being, as these foodstuffs are rich in minerals and vitamins, antioxidants, and fiber; moreover, the addition of probiotic microorganisms enhances the quality of these foodstuffs. In some cases, fruits and vegetables also represent a natural source of prebiotics, which have a protective function toward probiotic microorganisms, preserving their vitality during shelf life of the product. Therefore, fruits and vegetables create a new concept of symbiotic food. Several studies have shown that foods made with fruits and vegetables can be successfully used as carriers of probiotics, maintaining good levels of viability of probiotic microorganisms and good sensory characteristics. Microencapsulation of microorganisms can contribute to the maintenance of the functionality of food. However, as shown in this chapter, not all organisms show the same behavior under certain conditions. Therefore, in addition to using protective techniques such as microencapsulation, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the food and the physiological characteristics of the probiotic strain. There are still many challenges ahead, and in any case, the choice of probiotic strain to be used in food is essential.
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