Background: Grapevine berry, a nonclimacteric fruit, has three developmental stages; the last one is when berrycolor and sugar increase. Flavors derived from terpenoid and fatty acid metabolism develop at the very end of thisripening stage. The transcriptomic response of pulp and skin of Cabernet Sauvignon berries in the late stages ofripening between 22 and 37 °Brix was assessed using whole-genome micorarrays.Results: The transcript abundance of approximately 18,000 genes changed with °Brix and tissue type. There were alarge number of changes in many gene ontology (GO) categories involving metabolism, signaling and abioticstress. GO categories reflecting tissue differences were overrepresented in photosynthesis, isoprenoid metabolismand pigment biosynthesis. Detailed analysis of the interaction of the skin and pulp with °Brix revealed that therewere statistically significantly higher abundances of transcripts changing with °Brix in the skin that were involved inethylene signaling, isoprenoid and fatty acid metabolism. Many transcripts were peaking around known optimalfruit stages for flavor production. The transcript abundance of approximately two-thirds of the AP2/ERF superfamilyof transcription factors changed during these developmental stages. The transcript abundance of a unique clade ofERF6-type transcription factors had the largest changes in the skin and clustered with genes involved in ethylene,senescence, and fruit flavor production including ACC oxidase, terpene synthases, and lipoxygenases. The transcriptabundance of important transcription factors involved in fruit ripening was also higher in the skin.Conclusions: A detailed analysis of the transcriptome dynamics during late stages of ripening of grapevine berriesrevealed that these berries went through massive transcriptional changes in gene ontology categories involvingchemical signaling and metabolism in both the pulp and skin, particularly in the skin. Changes in the transcriptabundance of genes involved in the ethylene signaling pathway of this nonclimacteric fruit were statisticallysignificant in the late stages of ripening when the production of transcripts for important flavor and aroma compoundswere at their highest. Ethylene transcription factors known to play a role in leaf senescence also appear to play a role infruit senescence. Ethylene may play a bigger role than previously thought in this non-climacteric fruit.
|Titolo:||Transcriptomic analysis of the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berry ripening reveals significant induction of ethylene signaling and flavor pathways in the skin|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|