Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER apoptosis in β-cells. The aim of the study is investigating the role of the prolonged glycemic, inflammatory, and oxidative impairment as possible UPR and ER apoptosis inductors in triggering the ER stress response and the protective nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant-related element (ARE) activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of T2DM patients without glycemic target. Oxidative stress markers (oxidation product of phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [oxPAPC], and malondialdehyde [MDA]), the UPR and ER apoptosis, the activation of the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) with its inhibitory protein inhibitor-kBα, and the expression of the protective Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were evaluated in PBMC of 15 T2DM patients and 15 healthy controls (C). OxPAPC concentrations (in PBMC and plasma), MDA levels (in plasma), the expressions of the glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (or BiP) as representative of UPR, and of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein as representative of ER apoptosis were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in T2DM with respect to C. IkBα expression was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in T2DM as well as Nrf2 and HO-1. In vitro experiments demonstrated that hyperglycemic conditions, if prolonged, were NF-kB inductors, without a corresponding Nrf2/ARE response. In PBMC of T2DM without glycemic target achievement, there is an activation of the UPR and of the ER apoptosis, which may be related to the chronic exposure to hyperglycemia, to the augmented inflammation, and to the augmented oxidative stress, without a corresponding Nrf2/ARE defense activation.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress and Nrf2 repression in circulating cells of type 2 diabetic patients without the recommended glycemic goals

MOZZINI, Chiara;GARBIN, Ulisse;STRANIERI, Chiara;PASINI, Andrea;Solani, Erika;Tinelli, Irene Alessandra;COMINACINI, Luciano;FRATTA PASINI, Anna Maria
2015

Abstract

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER apoptosis in β-cells. The aim of the study is investigating the role of the prolonged glycemic, inflammatory, and oxidative impairment as possible UPR and ER apoptosis inductors in triggering the ER stress response and the protective nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant-related element (ARE) activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of T2DM patients without glycemic target. Oxidative stress markers (oxidation product of phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine [oxPAPC], and malondialdehyde [MDA]), the UPR and ER apoptosis, the activation of the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) with its inhibitory protein inhibitor-kBα, and the expression of the protective Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were evaluated in PBMC of 15 T2DM patients and 15 healthy controls (C). OxPAPC concentrations (in PBMC and plasma), MDA levels (in plasma), the expressions of the glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (or BiP) as representative of UPR, and of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein as representative of ER apoptosis were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in T2DM with respect to C. IkBα expression was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in T2DM as well as Nrf2 and HO-1. In vitro experiments demonstrated that hyperglycemic conditions, if prolonged, were NF-kB inductors, without a corresponding Nrf2/ARE response. In PBMC of T2DM without glycemic target achievement, there is an activation of the UPR and of the ER apoptosis, which may be related to the chronic exposure to hyperglycemia, to the augmented inflammation, and to the augmented oxidative stress, without a corresponding Nrf2/ARE defense activation.
endoplasmic reticulum stress; type 2 diabetes
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
FRR.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Altro materiale allegato
Licenza: Accesso ristretto
Dimensione 979.84 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
979.84 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/891384
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 26
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 24
social impact