Thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus, the most common disorders in endocrine practice, are not infrequently associated in the same subject. An altered thyroid function may affect glucose tolerance and worsen metabolic control in patients with diabetes. Thyrotoxicosis increases the risk of hyperglycemic emergencies, while a clinically relevant hypothyroidism may have a detrimental effect on glycemic control in diabetic patients. The association of alterations in thyroid function with diabetes mellitus may adversely affect the risk of cardiovascular and microvascular complications resulting from diabetes. Moreover, the treatments used for both diabetes and thyroid disease, respectively, can impact one other. Finally, multinodular goiter, but not thyroid carcinoma, was shown to be more prevalent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Aim of the present Position Statement is to focus on the evidence concerning the association of thyroid disease and diabetes
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