In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes, the loading of the replicative helicase MCM2-7 onto DNA requires the combined activities of ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1. These proteins load MCM2-7 in an unknown way into a double hexamer around DNA. Here we show that MCM2-7 recruitment by ORC/Cdc6 is blocked by an autoinhibitory domain in the C terminus of Mcm6. Interestingly, Cdt1 can overcome this inhibitory activity, and consequently the Cdt1-MCM2-7 complex activates ORC/Cdc6 ATP-hydrolysis to promote helicase loading. While Cdc6 ATPase activity is known to facilitate Cdt1 release and MCM2-7 loading, we discovered that Orc1 ATP-hydrolysis is equally important in this process. Moreover, we found that Orc1/Cdc6 ATP-hydrolysis promotes the formation of the ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 (OCM) complex, which functions in MCM2-7 double-hexamer assembly. Importantly, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of ORC inhibits OCM establishment to ensure once per cell cycle replication. In summary, this work reveals multiple critical mechanisms that redefine our understanding of DNA licensing.

An ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 Complex Is Formed in a Multistep Reaction to Serve as a Platform for MCM Double-Hexamer Assembly

Gardenal, Emanuela;
2013-01-01

Abstract

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes, the loading of the replicative helicase MCM2-7 onto DNA requires the combined activities of ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1. These proteins load MCM2-7 in an unknown way into a double hexamer around DNA. Here we show that MCM2-7 recruitment by ORC/Cdc6 is blocked by an autoinhibitory domain in the C terminus of Mcm6. Interestingly, Cdt1 can overcome this inhibitory activity, and consequently the Cdt1-MCM2-7 complex activates ORC/Cdc6 ATP-hydrolysis to promote helicase loading. While Cdc6 ATPase activity is known to facilitate Cdt1 release and MCM2-7 loading, we discovered that Orc1 ATP-hydrolysis is equally important in this process. Moreover, we found that Orc1/Cdc6 ATP-hydrolysis promotes the formation of the ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 (OCM) complex, which functions in MCM2-7 double-hexamer assembly. Importantly, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of ORC inhibits OCM establishment to ensure once per cell cycle replication. In summary, this work reveals multiple critical mechanisms that redefine our understanding of DNA licensing.
DNA replication; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; DNA licensing
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/858764
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