Recent experimental data seem to suggest a relevant role for 1,25[OH]2cholecalciferol (1,25[OH]2D3) in adipocyte physiology and pathophysiology, with some studies showing adipogenic and pro-inflammatory properties, and others lipolytic and anti-inflammatory functions. Moreover, to our knowledge, the role of cholecalciferol (D3) in adipocytes function is still not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effects of 1,25[OH]2D3, as well as of D3, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in basal and inflammatory conditions, testing the effects of different calcium concentrations in adipocytes culture medium. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 mRNA were detected in basal conditions and induced after D3 treatment. Pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes not only with 1,25[OH]2D3, but also with D3 before inflammatory stimulation, significantly prevented the increase in gene expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, and significantly increased IL-10 mRNA and protein production compared with adipocytes treated only with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Biological effects of D3 were still present after inhibition of P450 activity with ketokonazole. LPS determined a decrease in cell area compared with controls, paralleled by a significant increase in optical density (OD) of lipid droplets, whereas 1,25[OH]2D3 and D3 alone significantly increased adipocytes area and decreased OD. Pretreatment with both forms of vitamin D preserved cells from the reduction in their area observed after LPS treatment. LPS decreased more the area of cells grown in a high calcium medium than of adipocytes grown in a low calcium medium. In the presence of a high calcium medium, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment preserved cell area, maintaining its anti-inflammatory and adipogenic properties. In conclusion our results show that D3, besides 1,25[OH]2D3, presents anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1, as well as that adipocytes have the enzymatic pathways necessary to locally regulate the production of active forms of vitamin D, capable of influencing adipocyte phenotype and function.

Phenotypic Shift of Adipocytes by Cholecalciferol and 1α,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol in Relation to Inflammatory Status and Calcium Content

ZOICO, Elena;Franceschetti, Guido;CHIRUMBOLO, Salvatore;ROSSI, Andrea;MAZZALI, Gloria;RIZZATTI, Vanni;BUDUI, Simona Luciana;ZAMBONI, Mauro
2014-01-01

Abstract

Recent experimental data seem to suggest a relevant role for 1,25[OH]2cholecalciferol (1,25[OH]2D3) in adipocyte physiology and pathophysiology, with some studies showing adipogenic and pro-inflammatory properties, and others lipolytic and anti-inflammatory functions. Moreover, to our knowledge, the role of cholecalciferol (D3) in adipocytes function is still not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effects of 1,25[OH]2D3, as well as of D3, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in basal and inflammatory conditions, testing the effects of different calcium concentrations in adipocytes culture medium. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 mRNA were detected in basal conditions and induced after D3 treatment. Pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes not only with 1,25[OH]2D3, but also with D3 before inflammatory stimulation, significantly prevented the increase in gene expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, and significantly increased IL-10 mRNA and protein production compared with adipocytes treated only with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Biological effects of D3 were still present after inhibition of P450 activity with ketokonazole. LPS determined a decrease in cell area compared with controls, paralleled by a significant increase in optical density (OD) of lipid droplets, whereas 1,25[OH]2D3 and D3 alone significantly increased adipocytes area and decreased OD. Pretreatment with both forms of vitamin D preserved cells from the reduction in their area observed after LPS treatment. LPS decreased more the area of cells grown in a high calcium medium than of adipocytes grown in a low calcium medium. In the presence of a high calcium medium, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment preserved cell area, maintaining its anti-inflammatory and adipogenic properties. In conclusion our results show that D3, besides 1,25[OH]2D3, presents anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1, as well as that adipocytes have the enzymatic pathways necessary to locally regulate the production of active forms of vitamin D, capable of influencing adipocyte phenotype and function.
vitamin D; Adipocytes; lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11562/827377
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