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|Titolo:||Hemispheric control of unilateral and bilateral responses to lateralized light stimuli after callosotomy and in callosal agenesis|
|Autori interni:||BERLUCCHI, Giovanni|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1993|
|Rivista:||EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH|
|Abstract:||Normally, simple digital or manual responses to a light stimulus in the right or left visual hemifields are performed faster with uncrossed hand-field combinations than with crossed hand-field combinations. Because of the organization of visual and motor pathways, the integration of uncrossed responses is assumed to occur within a single hemisphere, whereas a time-consuming interhemispheric transfer via the corpus callosum is considered to be necessary for the integration of crossed responses. However, callosal transfer may be dispensable for those crossed responses which can be controlled through ipsilaterally descending motor pathways by the hemisphere receiving the visual stimulus. We investigated crossed-uncrossed differences (CUDs) in speed of simple visuomotor responses to lateralized flashes in one subject with total section of the corpus callosum and two subjects with complete callosal agenesis. We recorded the reaction times as well as the premotor times, as indicated by the electromyographic latencies of the prime movers, of three types of responses: a distal response involving a thumb flexion, a proximal response chiefly involving a forearm flexion and an axial response involving a shoulder elevation. Further, the three types of responses to a single lateralised flash were performed both unilaterally and bilaterally. The three acallosal subjects showed CUDs greatly exceeding normal values on distal responses, either unilateral or bilateral, and on unilateral proximal responses. These abnormally long CUDs stood in sharp contrast to the insignificant CUDs exhibited by the same subjects on bilateral proximal responses and on unilateral and bilateral axial responses in agreement with correspondingly insignificant CUDs reported for normal subjects. These results confirm that a callosal contribution is important for the execution of fast distal and unilateral proximal responses to a visual stimulus directed to the hemisphere ipsilateral to the responding hand. By contrast, the other types of crossed responses appear to be efficiently coordinated across the midline without the aid of the corpus callosum. This is in keeping with the hypothesis that they are governed by a bilaterally distributed motor system which is preferentially activated for the execution of symmetrical bilateral movements, employing axial and proximal limb muscles.|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 Articolo in Rivista|
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