Busulphan (BU) is associated with neurotoxicity and risk of seizures. Hence, seizure prophylaxis is routinely utilized during BU administration for stem cell transplantation (SCT). We collected data on the incidence of seizures among children undergoing SCT in Italy. Fourteen pediatric transplant centers agreed to report unselected data on children receiving BU as part of the conditioning regimen for SCT, between 2005 and 2012. Data on 954 pediatric transplant procedures were collected; of them, 66% received BU orally, and the remaining 34% i.v. All the patients received prophylaxis of seizures, according to local protocols, consisting of different schedules and drugs. A total of 13 patients (1.3%) developed seizures; of them, 3 had a history of epilepsy (or other seizure-related pre-existing condition); 3 had documented brain lesions potentially causing seizures per se; 1 had febrile seizures, 1 severe hypo-osmolality. In the remaining 5 patients seizures were considered not explained and thus potentially related to BU administration. The incidence of seizures in children receiving BU-containing regimen was very low (1.3%); furthermore, most of them had at least one - either pre-existing or concurrent - associated risk-factor for seizures.
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