Although cigarette smoking has been associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) the mechanisms are yet not completely known. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a main product of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity, appears to be a major determinant of the pro-atherogenic properties of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and to induce proteoglycan synthesis, a main player in intimal thickening. In this study we assessed whether cigarette smoking-induced oxidative stress may influence plasma Lp-PLA2 and lysoPC and Lp-PLA2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as the relationship between lysoPC and CIMT.45 healthy smokers and 45 age and sex-matched subjects participated in this study. Smokers, compared to non-smokers, showed increased plasma concentrations of oxLDL, Lp-PLA2 and lysoPC together with up-regulation of Lp-PLA2 (mRNA and protein) expression in PBMC (P<0.001). Plasma Lp-PLA2 positively correlated with both lysoPC (r=0.639, P<0.001) and PBMC mRNA Lp-PLA2 (r=0.484, P<0.001) in all subjects. Moreover CIMT that was higher in smokers (P<0.001), positively correlated with lysoPC (r=0.55, P<0.001). Then in in vitro study we demonstrated that both oxLDL (at concentrations similar to those found in smoker's serum) and oxidized phospholipids contained in oxLDL, were able to up-regulate mRNA Lp-PLA2 in PBMC. This effect was likely due, at least in part, to the enrichment in oxidized phospholipids found in PBMC after exposure to oxLDL. Our results also showed that in human aortic smooth muscle cells lysoPC, at concentrations similar to those found in smokers, increased the expression of biglycan and versican, two main proteoglycans.In smokers a further effect of raised oxidative stress is the up-regulation of Lp-PLA2 expression in PBMC with subsequent increase of plasma Lp-PLA2 and lysoPC. Moreover the correlation between lysoPC and CIMT together with the finding that lysoPC up-regulates proteoglycan synthesis suggests that lysoPC may be a link between smoking and intimal thickening.

Lysophosphatidylcholine and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Young Smokers: A Role for Oxidized LDL-Induced Expression of PBMC Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2?

FRATTA PASINI, Anna Maria;STRANIERI, Chiara;PASINI, Andrea;VALLERIO, Paola;MOZZINI, Chiara;Solani, Erika;COMINACINI, Mattia;COMINACINI, Luciano;GARBIN, Ulisse
2013

Abstract

Although cigarette smoking has been associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) the mechanisms are yet not completely known. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a main product of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity, appears to be a major determinant of the pro-atherogenic properties of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and to induce proteoglycan synthesis, a main player in intimal thickening. In this study we assessed whether cigarette smoking-induced oxidative stress may influence plasma Lp-PLA2 and lysoPC and Lp-PLA2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as the relationship between lysoPC and CIMT.45 healthy smokers and 45 age and sex-matched subjects participated in this study. Smokers, compared to non-smokers, showed increased plasma concentrations of oxLDL, Lp-PLA2 and lysoPC together with up-regulation of Lp-PLA2 (mRNA and protein) expression in PBMC (P<0.001). Plasma Lp-PLA2 positively correlated with both lysoPC (r=0.639, P<0.001) and PBMC mRNA Lp-PLA2 (r=0.484, P<0.001) in all subjects. Moreover CIMT that was higher in smokers (P<0.001), positively correlated with lysoPC (r=0.55, P<0.001). Then in in vitro study we demonstrated that both oxLDL (at concentrations similar to those found in smoker's serum) and oxidized phospholipids contained in oxLDL, were able to up-regulate mRNA Lp-PLA2 in PBMC. This effect was likely due, at least in part, to the enrichment in oxidized phospholipids found in PBMC after exposure to oxLDL. Our results also showed that in human aortic smooth muscle cells lysoPC, at concentrations similar to those found in smokers, increased the expression of biglycan and versican, two main proteoglycans.In smokers a further effect of raised oxidative stress is the up-regulation of Lp-PLA2 expression in PBMC with subsequent increase of plasma Lp-PLA2 and lysoPC. Moreover the correlation between lysoPC and CIMT together with the finding that lysoPC up-regulates proteoglycan synthesis suggests that lysoPC may be a link between smoking and intimal thickening.
cigarette smoking; lysophosphatidylcoline; intima media thickness
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11562/652979
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